LC
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 11,000,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 17,300,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 1300000 mature individuals poor estimated 2018
Population trend increasing - estimated -
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 88% - - -
Generation length 6 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 1,300,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2020).

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a large increase (Partners in Flight 2020). Over the past three generations (18 years; Bird et al. 2020) the rate of increase equated to 88%, although it is noted that there is some data deficiency for the species (Pardieck et al. 2018).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Bahamas extant vagrant
Bermuda (to UK) extant native yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant vagrant
Canada extant native yes yes yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant vagrant
Cuba extant vagrant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant vagrant
Finland extant vagrant
France extant vagrant
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Iceland extant vagrant
Jamaica extant vagrant
Japan extant vagrant
Mexico extant native yes
Netherlands extant vagrant
Portugal extant vagrant
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant vagrant
Russia extant vagrant
Russia (Asian) extant vagrant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant vagrant
Slovakia extant vagrant
Spain extant vagrant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant vagrant
United Kingdom extant vagrant
USA extant native yes yes yes yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant vagrant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Bucephala albeola. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/bufflehead-bucephala-albeola on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/02/2024.