Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis


Anderson, D. W. 1988. Dose-response relationship between human disturbance and Brown Pelican breeding success. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16: 339-345.

Anderson, D. W.; Keith, J. O. 1980. The human influence on seabird nesting success: conservation implications. Biological Conservation 18: 65-80.

Blus, L. J. 1982. Further interpretation of the relation of organochlorine residues in Brown Pelican eggs to reproductive success. Environmental Pollution (Series A) 28: 15-33.

Blus, L. J. 1984. DDE in birds' eggs: comparison of two methods for estimating critical levels. Wilson Bull. 96: 268-276.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Elliott, A., Christie, D.A., Jutglar, F., de Juana, E. & Kirwan, G.M. 2018. Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona Available at: (Accessed: 9 August 2018).

Franson, J. C., S. P. Hansen, T. E. Creekmore, C. J. Brand, D. C. Evers, A. E. Duerr and S. DeStefano. 2003. Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds. Waterbirds 26(3): 345-352.

Keith, J. O., Jr. Woods, L. A. and E. G. Hunt. 1971. Reproductive failure in Brown Pelicans on the Pacific coast. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 35: 56-63.

Mendenhall, V. M. and R. M. Prouty. 1978. Recovery of breeding success in a population of Brown Pelicans. Proc. Colon. Waterbird Group 1978: 65-70.

Shields, M. . 2014. Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 09 August 2018).

Stiles, F. G. 1984. Seabirds of Costa Rica. In: Croxall, J.P.; Evans, P.G.H.; Schreiber, R.W. (ed.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds, pp. 223-231. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Pelican Specialist Group

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Pelecanus occidentalis. Downloaded from on 22/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2021.