LC
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Not Recognised
2004 Least Concern
2000 Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 26,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2006
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -

Population justification: Delany and Scott (2006) estimate the population to be 300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (712% increase over 40 years, equating to a 68.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Canada N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Bahía Magdalena-Almejas
Mexico Complejo Lagunar San Ignacio
Mexico Delta del Río Colorado
Mexico Isla Cerralvo
Mexico Isla San Pedro Mártir
Mexico Isla San Pedro Nolasco
Mexico Sistema San Luis Gonzaga
Colombia Complejo de Humedales Costeros de la Guajira
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve
Ecuador Manglares del golfo de Guayaquil
Ecuador Isla Santa Clara
Ecuador Archipiélago de Jambelí
Ecuador Refugio de Vida Silvestre Isla Corazón e Isla Fragata
Peru Laguna de Ite
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla
Venezuela Humedal Chacopata
Jamaica Kingston Harbour (Palisadoes) and Port Royal Cays
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga
Colombia Delta del Río San Juan
Panama Taboga Group
Panama Pearl Archipelago
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vieques
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Grand Turk Salinas and Shores
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Salt Cay Creek and Salinas
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Cuba Río Máximo
Cuba Delta del Mayarí
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río
Bahamas Great Inagua
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Boven, Sint Eustatius
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Pelikan Rock, Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Fort Amsterdam, Sint Maarten
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Cay Sal
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Panama Chimán Islands
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats
Trinidad and Tobago Soldado Rock
Virgin Islands (to USA) Virgin Islands National Park
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Klein Bonaire, Bonaire
Virgin Islands (to USA) North-west Cays
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Cove
Antigua and Barbuda Hanson's Bay – Flashes
El Salvador Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque
Virgin Islands (to USA) John Brewer's Bay
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West)
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Guyana North-west Coastline
USA Altamaha River Delta
USA Channel Islands - Northern
Chile Desembocadura del Río Imperial
Jamaica Font Hill
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua
Ecuador Refugio de Vida Silvestre Isla Corazón e Isla Fragata - Marine
Ecuador Isla Santa Clara - Marine
Colombia Reserva de Biosfera RAMSAR Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca y Sabana Grande - Marine
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla - Marine
Venezuela Humedal Chacopata - Marine
Colombia Gorgona National Natural Park / Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga - Marine
Colombia Delta del Río San Juan - Marine
Panama Taboga Group - Marine
Panama Pearl Archipelago - Marine
USA Active Delta (Mississippi River Birdsfoot Delta)
USA Bird Key Stono
USA Bird Rocks NWR
USA Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge
USA Center Islands
USA Deveaux Bank
USA Sundown Island
USA Chandeleur Islands (Breton National Wildlife Refuge)
Anguilla (to UK) Cauls Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Rendezvous Bay Pond
Mexico Bahía de Ceuta - Cospita
USA Isles Dernieres - Timbalier Islands
USA Barataria Terrebonne
Mexico Archipiélago Salsipuedes
USA Old House Channel - Island MN
Mexico Laguna de Tamiahua
Mexico Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano
Mexico Isla Alcatraz
Mexico Farallon San Ignacio
Mexico Isla Asunción
Mexico Isla San Roque
Mexico Isla Santa Inés
Mexico Isla Tortuga
Mexico Laguna de Mecoacán
Mexico Islas Benitos
Mexico Islas Coronado
Mexico Humedales de Alvarado
Mexico Isla Contoy

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Pelecanus occidentalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2021.