Brown Noddy Anous stolidus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 189 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 215,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 282,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2006
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.180,000-1,100,000 individuals (Delany and Scott 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: Although Wetlands International consider the population trend to be unknown, the population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Angola U Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin U Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Cambodia U Extant
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Congo U Extant
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gabon U Extant
Gambia V Extant Yes
Ghana V Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Mozambique U Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nauru N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) V Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Peru U Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Samoa U Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) N Extant Yes
Tonga N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Tuvalu N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero Island
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Australia Houtman Abrolhos
Australia Raine Island, Moulter and Maclennan Cays
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Bahamas Goulding Cay Wild Bird Reserve
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Brazil Atol das Rocas
British Indian Ocean Territory Danger Island, Chagos Bank
British Indian Ocean Territory Nelson, Chagos Bank
British Indian Ocean Territory Sea Cow, Chagos Bank
British Indian Ocean Territory South Brother, Chagos Bank
Chile Isla Rapa Nui
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez
Chile Islas Desventuradas
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) North Keeling Island
Dominica Point Des Foux
Dominican Republic Siete Hermanos Keys
French Polynesia Anuanuraro
French Polynesia Tetiaroa
French Polynesia Tetiaroa, Moorea et Tahiti Marine
Guadeloupe (to France) Falaises Nord et Îlet de Vieux-Fort de Marie-Galante
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api
Indonesia Pulau Manuk
Jamaica Morant Cays and Bank
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank
Jamaica Portland Ridge and Bight
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Marine
Kiribati Phoenix Islands Marine
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Martinique (to France) Îlets et falaises de Sainte Anne
Martinique (to France) Rocher du Diamant
Mauritius Cargados Carajos Shoals
Mauritius Serpent Island
Micronesia, Federated States of Kosrae Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Pohnpei Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Îles des récifs Bampton et Chesterfield
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs Bampton et Chesterfield Marin
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Maug Islands
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Uracus Marine
Papua New Guinea Tench Island
Papua New Guinea Tench Marine
Puerto Rico (to USA) Culebra
São Tomé e Príncipe Tinhosas islands
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Seychelles African Banks
Seychelles Aride Island Special Reserve
Seychelles Bird Island (Ile aux Vaches)
Seychelles Marie-Louise Island
Somalia Jasiira Maydh
St Martin (to France) Tintamarre
Tanzania Latham Island
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Atafu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Nukunonu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Tokelau Marine
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Turks Bank Seabird Cays
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll Marine
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Venezuela Wildlife Refuge Bird Island - Marine
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anous stolidus. Downloaded from on 27/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/01/2020.