Brown-cheeked Bulbul Alophoixus bres


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a large range, is described as common and appears tolerant of degraded habitat. However, it is increasingly heavily exploited for trade, and the population is in decline. Therefore, the species has been uplisted to Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common to very common (del Hoyo et al. 2005). One of the most highly traded birds in Java, exploitation may be leading to considerable population declines.

Trend justification
Within the last ten years, it has been recorded at remaining forested sites scattered across Java (all considered accessible to trappers), and in several locations on Bali (eBird 2019). From the numbers recorded in trade, a continuing population decline can be inferred within the species’s range due to exploitation. While the rate of decline has not been quantified, it could potentially be as high as 98% over 10 years (Symes et al. 2018). Until detailed information becomes available, the rate of decline has tentatively been placed in the band 10-25% over ten years.

Distribution and population

Brown-cheeked Bulbul's distribution is restricted to Java and Bali, Indonesia.


Inhabits primary, secondary, and submontane forest (Fishpool et al. 2019).


The principal threat to the species is trapping for the cagebird trade. It is one of the most highly traded birds in Java, and exploitation may be leading to considerable population declines, possibly as high as 98% over 10 years (Symes et al. 2018). The species appears to be tolerant of degraded habitat, so it may not be heavily threatened by habitat change (Fishpool et al. 2019).

Conservation actions

Conservation actions underway

No conservation actions directed specifically towards this species are currently in place. The principal threat is trade. Capture and trade of any wild birds has been essentially illegal in Indonesia since 2002, but this is scarcely enforced (Eaton et al. 2015, Chng et al. 2016).

Conservation actions proposed

In their review of the impacts on bird species of commercial trade in Sundaic Indonesia, Eaton et al. (2015) made a series of recommendations for actions to prevent population declines, of which the following are applicable to this species: Enforce laws restricting trade, after careful review considering all interested parties. Carry out public awareness campaigns by working with trappers. Establish a commercial captive-breeding programme. Improve and expand survey and monitoring programmes for this species, both within the field and on the pet market.


Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Butchart, S., Martin, R., Smith, D.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Alophoixus bres. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/04/2020.