LC
Brown Booby Sula leucogaster



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 223,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 262,000,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number >200,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1992). National population sizes have been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to disturbance and unsustainable levels of exploitation.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin V Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Cambodia U Extant
Cameroon U Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Chile U Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia V Extant Yes
Ghana V Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius U Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Mozambique V Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nauru N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
North Korea U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan U Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) U Extant
Portugal V Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa V Extant Yes
South Korea U Extant
Spain V Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania U Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Tuvalu U Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara U Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Hatu iti
French Polynesia Manui, Kamaka, Makaroa
French Polynesia Manuae, Motu One et Maupihaa
French Polynesia Tetiaroa
Guinea Ile Alcatraz et Ile du Naufrage
São Tomé e Príncipe Tinhosas islands
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Zubayr
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park
Japan Senkaku islands
Japan Danjo islands
Indonesia Pulau Manuk
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Turks Bank Seabird Cays
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Cay Sal
Bahamas Samana Cay
Bahamas Mira Por Vos
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Bahamas Tee Cay, Goat Cay and Long Rocks
Bahamas Sandy Point
Nicaragua Booby Cay Island
Bahamas Cay Verde
Martinique (to France) Rocher du Diamant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Antigua and Barbuda Redonda
Puerto Rico (to USA) Culebra
Puerto Rico (to USA) Mona and Monito
Dominica Point Des Foux
Dominica L'llet
Virgin Islands (to USA) North-west Cays
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
St Lucia Pitons (Qualibou and Canaries)
St Lucia Point Sables
St Lucia Iyanola and Grande Anses, Esperance and Fond D'ors
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero Island
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West)
Bahamas Booby Island
St Barthelemy (to France) Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets
Guadeloupe (to France) Islet of Tête à l’Anglais
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas
St Barthelemy (to France) Petite Islette
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Virgin Islands (to USA) John Brewer's Bay
St Vincent and the Grenadines Battowia Island
Trinidad and Tobago Little Tobago Island
Trinidad and Tobago St Giles Islands
Bahamas Booby Cay
Trinidad and Tobago Soldado Rock
New Caledonia (to France) Île Walpole
Brazil Arquipélago dos Alcatrazes
Mexico Bahía e Islas de San Jorge
St Vincent and the Grenadines All Awash Island
Australia Manowar and Rocky Islands
St Vincent and the Grenadines Petit Canouan
Mexico Isla San Pedro Mártir
Mexico Isla San Pedro Nolasco
Mexico Islas Marietas
Australia Adele Island
Australia Bedout Island
Australia Booby Island (Kimberley)
Australia Lacepede Islands
Australia Ashmore Reef
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island
Australia Capricornia Cays
Australia Islands North of Port Stewart
Australia Raine Island, Moulter and Maclennan Cays
Australia Stapleton Island
Australia Wilson Reef (Great Barrier Reef)
Australia Cato Island (Coral Sea)
French Polynesia Maria
Guyana North-west Coastline
Taiwan, China Yieliu
Palau Helen Island, Hatohobei
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux
Tonga 'Ata Island
Marshall Islands Bikar Atoll
Marshall Islands Taka Atoll
Marshall Islands Enewetok Atoll
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Aguiguan Island and Naftan Rock
Micronesia, Federated States of Wolouna, Ahnd Atoll
Mexico Islas Revillagigedo
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Saba
Kiribati McKean Island
Kiribati Abariranga (Canton) Island
Kiribati Enderbury Island
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Kiribati Malden Island
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island
Kiribati Vostok Island
Fiji Vetauua
Fiji Vanua Masi Islet
Fiji Qelelevu Islands
Fiji Kibobo Islet
Fiji Nukubasaga & Nukupureti
Fiji Namenalala
American Samoa Rose Atoll
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Tutuila
French Polynesia Fatu Hiva
Kiribati Starbuck Island
French Polynesia Tahanea
French Polynesia Motu de l'ouest et du sud de Rangiroa
French Polynesia Makatea
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Rapa et Marotiri
French Polynesia Motane (Mohotani)
French Polynesia Nord-ouest de Nuku Hiva
French Polynesia Kauehi
French Polynesia Tikehau
French Polynesia Fatu Huku
French Polynesia Hatuta'a
French Polynesia Akamaru island
French Polynesia Hatu iti
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Pou
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Huka
French Polynesia Bora Bora
French Polynesia Maiao
French Polynesia Maupiti
French Polynesia Mehetia
French Polynesia Tupai
French Polynesia Fakarava Atolls
French Polynesia Manuhangi
French Polynesia Tekokota
Jamaica Font Hill
USA Lehua Islet
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Cook Islands Suwarrow Atoll National Park
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api
USA Lehua Islet
Fiji Vatu-i-Ra
Palau Ngeriungs, Palau
Palau Fana Island
Brazil Arquipélago dos Alcatrazes - Marine
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla - Marine
Colombia Gorgona National Natural Park / Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga - Marine
Australia Bedout Island - Marine
Australia Lacepede Islands - Marine
Australia Adele Island - Marine
Australia Ashmore Reef - Marine
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Manuk - Marine
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park - Marine
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Zubayr - Marine
Australia Bountiful Islands / Manowar & Rocky Islands - Marine
Australia Cape York to Cape Grenville Islands / Islands north of Port Stewart / Piper Islands / Raine Island, Moulter & Maclennan Cays (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Capricornia Cays (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Islands north of Port Stewart / Stapleton Island / Wilson Reef (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Cato Island (Coral Sea) - Marine
Guinea-Bissau Île Alcatraz et Île du Naufrage - Marine
São Tomé e Príncipe Tinhosas islands - Marine
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank - Marine
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero / Scrub Island / Saba coastline / Dog Island / Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets - Marine
Nicaragua Booby Cay Island / Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape - Marine
Brazil Laje de Santos
Brazil Ilha Itacuces
Brazil Ilhas dos Currais
Micronesia, Federated States of Gaferut (Faiyew) Island
Micronesia, Federated States of East Fayu
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Wake Island
Fiji Mabualau & Saqata Rocks
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Baker Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island
Cook Islands Takutea Wildlife Sanctuary
Kiribati Orona Atoll (Hull Island)
Micronesia, Federated States of Gaferut Island Marine
Fiji Ringgold Islands Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Île Walpole Marin
Tonga Ata Island Marine
Kiribati Malden Island Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux Marin
Kiribati Flint Island
New Caledonia (to France) Îles des récifs Bampton et Chesterfield
New Caledonia (to France) Île Matthew
New Caledonia (to France) Île Hunter
Tonga Fonualei
Tonga Late
Vanuatu Ambrym West
Solomon Islands Gizo
Solomon Islands East Rennell
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Uracus
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Maug Islands
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Guguan Island
Australia Bramble Cay
Papua New Guinea Tench Island
French Polynesia Clipperton
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Alofi
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs Bampton et Chesterfield Marin
New Caledonia (to France) Île Matthew Marin
French Polynesia Clipperton Marine
Yemen Sabuniya and Ka'l Fir'awn (Socotra)
Yemen Al-Ikhwan (Socotra)
Yemen Darsa
Fiji Ringgold Islands
Yemen Islands off Bir Ali
Mexico Farallon San Ignacio
Mexico Morros El Potosí
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós - marine
Mexico Isla Santa Inés
Mexico Isla Tortuga
Yemen Falang - Momi coast and cliffs (Socotra)
Yemen Abd al-Kuri (Socotra)
Yemen Sabuniya (Socotra)
Yemen Kal Farun, Socotra
Yemen Samha
Japan Danjo islands - Marine
Mexico Isla Isabel
Mexico Arrecife Alacranes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major resident
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Sula leucogaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.