NT
Brown-backed Parrotlet Touit melanonotus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened C1+2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2012 Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Endangered C2a(i)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 537,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 58,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor suspected 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -

Population justification: Already in the 19th century, this species has been described as rare throughout its range; however, their inconspicuous habits result in their often being overlooked (Collar et al. 2020). It is suspected that the population numbers below 10,000 mature individuals (ICMBio 2018). Subpopulations are small and isolated due to the fragmentation of habitat and limited dispersal outside of forested areas (ICMBio 2018, R. Subirá in litt. 2022).

Trend justification: The population trend has not been assessed directly, but the species is suspected to decline as a consequence of the destruction, degradation and fragmentation of its forested habitat (ICMBio 2018). Tree cover within the range is lost at a rate equivalent to 3% over three generations (10.8 years; Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). The species is strictly forest-dependent, and as such the rate of population decline may be exacerbated by the impacts of forest degradation; however, it is unlikely that declines exceed 20% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Santa Teresa
Brazil Fazenda Pindobas IV e Arredores
Brazil Complexo Pedra Azul / Forno Grande
Brazil Parque Estadual do Desengano e Entorno
Brazil Serra dos Órgãos
Brazil Serra do Tinguá
Brazil Maciços da Tijuca e Pedra Branca
Brazil Serra do Marumbi
Brazil São Francisco Xavier / Monte Verde
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Caraguatatuba e Picinguaba)
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia
Brazil Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins
Brazil Ilhas Comprida e Cananéia

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 500 - 1200 m Occasional altitudinal limits 0 - 1400 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Touit melanonotus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/08/2022.