Brent Goose Branta bernicla


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 71,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.560,000-650,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 1,500-1,800 pairs, which equates to 3,000-3,600 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are stable, have unknown trends or are increasing (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Austria V Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant Yes
Canada N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Latvia N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
Norway N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal V Extant
Slovakia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey V Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Kilen
Iceland Breidafjördur
Iceland Alftafjordur-Hofsstadavogur
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Innstavogsnes-Grunnafjördur
Iceland Skerjafjördur
Iceland Hvalfjardareyri-Laxárvogur
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Baldoyle Bay
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Sheskinmore Lough
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Trawbreaga Bay
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Skerries Islands
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland Ballysadare Bay
Iceland Myrarnar
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Yerseke & Kapelse Moer
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Russia (European) Delta of River Severnaya Dvina
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Rakovye lakes
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Chausey
France Havre de la Sienne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Cap Gris-nez
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Pointe de Grave
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Venø and Venø Sund
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Mågerodde and Karby Odde
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Ballum og Husum Enge, Kamper strandenge
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake
Japan South Sanriku coast
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Hakodate bay, Kameda south coast
Japan Northern Shimokita coast
Japan Mutsu bay
Russia (Asian) Kavacha lagoon
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke
Russia (Asian) Lower Nizhnyaya Taymyra river
Russia (Asian) Izvestiy Tsik islands
Russia (Asian) Sayan reservoir (Tuva part)
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Russia (Asian) Indigirka delta
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon
Russia (Asian) Meechkyn spit and adjacent plain
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon
Russia (Asian) Karaga bay
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta
Russia (Asian) Wrangel and Herald Islands
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
Canada Comox Valley
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Sidney Channel
Canada Little Qualicum Estuary to Nanoose Bay
Canada Baynes Sound
Canada Cleland Island and Southeast Clayoquot Sound
Canada Big Bay south to Delusion Bay
Canada Skidegate Inlet
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Tracadie Bay and Sandspit
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Eastern Cape Sable Island
Canada Brier Island and Offshore Waters
Canada Mackenzie River Delta
Canada Banks Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Anderson River Delta
Canada Thomsen River
Canada Eastern Prince Patrick Island Coast
Canada Coats Island/Cape Pembroke
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
Canada East Bay/Native Bay
Canada Northeast James Bay
Canada Akimiski Island
Canada Great Plain of the Koukdjuak
Canada Boatswain Bay
Canada Prince Edward County South Shore
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada Amherst Island
Canada Hannah Bay
Canada Akimiski Strait
Canada Cape Henrietta Maria
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada North Point
Canada East Point
Canada Bedeque Bay
Canada Banc de Carleton
Canada Cap d'Espoir
Canada Barachois de Malbaie
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Marais de la baie de L'Isle-Verte
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Tadoussac
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Canada Babbage and Spring River Deltas
Canada Blow River Delta (Shingle Point to Tent Island)
Canada Cumshewa Inlet north to Sheldens Bay
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
Mexico Área San Quintín
Mexico Complejo Lagunar Ojo de Liebre
Mexico Complejo Lagunar San Ignacio
Mexico Bahía Magdalena-Almejas
Mexico Isla Tiburón - Canal Infiernillo - Estero Santa Cruz
Mexico Zonas Húmedas de Yávaros
Ireland Seagrange Park
Denmark Dråby Vig and Buksør Odde
USA Kasegaluk Lagoon
USA Izembek-Moffet-Kinzarof Lagoons
USA Barrier Island/Lagoon System
USA Teshekpuk Lake-E. Dease Inlet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Ireland Donegal Bay
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Clew Bay
Ireland Lambay Island
United Kingdom The Wash
Denmark Coast from Aggersund to Bygholm Vejle
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Poland Trzebiatow Site
USA Humboldt Bay
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Russia (Asian) Kytalyk
USA Cape Island and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area
Norway Øra
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
USA Bechevin Bay
USA Nanvak Bay
Mexico Bahía Santa María

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Branta bernicla. Downloaded from on 17/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/04/2021.