Bounty Shag Leucocarbo ranfurlyi


Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. magellanicus, P. bougainvilliorum, P. atriceps, P. verrucosus, P. carunculatus, P. chalconotus, P. onslowi, P. campbelli, P. ranfurlyi and P. colensoi moved into Leucocarbo (HBW and BirdLife International 2018).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at:
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable D1+2
2016 Vulnerable D1+2
2012 Vulnerable D1+2
2010 Vulnerable D1; D2
2008 Vulnerable D1; D2
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 874-975 medium estimated 2013
Population trend Stable poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.7 - - -

Population justification: In February 2013, the first bird count including an entire circumnavigation of the Bounty Islands group was carried out. The mean count of Bounty Island shags on land was 1,386.5 ± 75.5 birds (SD, range 1311-1462; roughly equivalent to 874-975 mature individuals) and 150 birds were also seen swimming or flying in the area.

Trend justification: Boat-based surveys conducted in 2011 suggest that numbers were similar to those counted in 2005 (J. Hiscock in litt. 2012), probably indicating that the population is stable overall.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Bounty Islands
New Zealand Bounty-Antipodes Plateau Marine IBA
New Zealand Bounty Islands
New Zealand Bounty Islands (nearshore)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Arctocephalus forsteri Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Leucocarbo ranfurlyi. Downloaded from on 17/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/01/2021.