LC
Boreal Owl Aegolius funereus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 73,800,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 700000-2400000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.1,700,000 individuals which equates to 1,130,000 mature individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 90,900-309,000 pairs, which equates to 182,000-619,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 26% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 700,000-2,380,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is placed in the band 700,000-2,400,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be fluctuating owing to fluctuations in prey populations. In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
India V Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Liechtenstein Garselli-Zigerberg, Alpengebiet
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Engure lake
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Belgium Tailles
Belgium Wanne-Logbiermé
Belgium Vallée de la Lienne
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Malchamps
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Croix-Scaille
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Niepolomice forest
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Luosto
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Fresser-Setcases
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Plateau Ardennais
France Bassigny
France Bois du Chapitre
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Eth Turoun des Aureys
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Gorges de la Frau et Belestat
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Bois des Ayes
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Montagne des Frêtes et plateau des Glières
France Les Bauges
France Haut Giffre
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Camonica valley
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Giulie Pre-Alps
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Dolomites
Denmark Almindingen
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Uhlstädt heathlands
Germany Schwarza valley
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Charlottenhofer Weihergebiet and Hirtlohweiher
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Wurzelbergfarmde
Germany Assberg-Hasenleite
Germany Meura heathlands
Germany Westerzgebirge around Carlsfeld
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Mangfall mountains and Rotwand area
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Wet grasslands and forests around Burbach
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Stechlin
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Northern Steigerwald
Germany Manteler Forst
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany High Westerwald around Driedorf
Germany Dune and aeolian sand area Dudenhofen, Babenhausen, Seligenstadt
Germany Knüll
Germany Burgwald
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Rotes Moor
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Schiltach and Berneck valleys, near Schramberg
Germany Middle-eastern Black Forest
Germany Feldberg in the Black Forest
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Simonswald-Rohrhardsberg
Germany Stromberg
Germany Sachsenwald
Luxembourg Wiltzer and Trattenerbach
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Karula
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Tudu
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Soomaa
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Jizerské hory mountains
Latvia Garkalne forest
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Pape
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Lake Lielauce
Latvia Stompaku bogs
Latvia Mangene forest
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Cirque de Gavarnie
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Forêt de Saou
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Russia (European) Ichalkovski forest
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity
Canada Lakeland
Canada Terra Nova National Park
Canada Cape North
Canada Amherst Island
Canada Tadoussac
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Salzach valley
Italy Lagorai mountains
Austria Karwendel
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Ukraine National Park Stara Guta
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Poland Pasleka river valley
Italy Mont Blanc (Italian side)
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Lebork Forest
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Darzlubska Forest
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Italy Val d'Ossola
Slovenia Pohorje
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Jelovica plateau
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia Julijci
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolické hills
Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Tatry
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Zaikovo forest
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Hasbruch
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Unterlüß / Kiehnmoor
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Hildesheim forest
Germany Solling
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Ragow-Mühlroser Heide
Germany Schlaubetal
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Spessart
Germany Eastern Chiemgau Alps
Germany Wetterstein mountain range
Germany Northern Danube valley and southern Riesalb
Germany Military training area Grafenwöhr
Germany Drawehn
Germany Southern Harz near Zorge
Germany Griese Gegend
Germany Military training area Hohenfels
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Riedforst near Melsungen
Germany Hoher Meißner/Plesse-Konstein
Germany Spessart near Bad Orb
Germany Southern Sandstone-Odenwald
Germany Upper Harz mountains
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Egge
Germany Mittelsiegbergland
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Schneifel
Germany Schwarzwälder Hochwald
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Călimani Mountains
Romania Ceahlă Mountains
Romania Frumoasa
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Poland Izerskie Mountains
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Pieniny Mountains
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Slovenia Gluha loza
Slovenia Trnovski gozd
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece Valia Kalda (Pindos National Forest Park)
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Serbia Golija
Serbia Mokra Gora
Serbia Zlatar

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subarctic suitable breeding
Forest Subarctic suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Sitta europaea_old Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Strix aluco Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aegolius funereus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.