Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 72,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 62,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150000-195000 poor suspected 2020
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.05 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 23,300-30,300 pairs, which equates to 46,600-60,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms approximately 31% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 150,000-195,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The North African population is estimated to be c.10,000 pairs or 20,000 mature individuals (Garrido et al. in prep.).

Trend justification: This species is declining locally owing to forest destruction, human disturbance and persecution and reduction in prey species (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In Europe and North Africa the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International in prep.; Garrido et al. in prep.). Overall the population trend is considered stable (Global Raptor Information Network 2021; Orta et al. 2020).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
Serbia Fruska gora
Azerbaijan Pirgulu (Pirkuli)
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Girkan forest
Azerbaijan Ismailly area
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Vilajchai valley
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Malcata mountains
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Slovenia Kočevsko
Turkey Akdağ - Çivril
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests
Turkey Sündiken Mountains
Turkey İlgaz Mountains
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Hungary Gerecse
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Russia (European) Karaichevski forest
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Voroninski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley
Russia (European) Kalachskaya Loop of Don River
Russia (European) Danilovski forest
Russia (European) Rubezhnoye forest
Russia (European) Secretevskiye sands
Russia (European) Bekovskoye forest
Russia (European) Kalitvenski forest
Russia (European) Gorodishchenski forest
Russia (European) Privolzhskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Sengileyevskiye mountain
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges
Spain Montes Universales-Albarracín mountain range
Spain Zuera mountains
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain River Moros
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Izki mountains
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain River Lobos canyon
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Tarifa
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain Ceuta
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain River Mundo and river Segura canyons
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Domaine d'Orx
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Forêt de Chaux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Gorges de la Frau et Belestat
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Marais de la Souche
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Montagne de la Clape
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Peloritani mountains
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Maritime Alps
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Germany Hakel
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Kebyaktepe ridge
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Russia (European) Shemyakinski forest
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Migulinskiye sands
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands
Russia (European) Elanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Portugal Murta dam
Portugal Arraiolos
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Armenia Meghri
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Etang du Bagnas
France Camargue
France Crau
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Vallée de la Garonne : Boussens à Carbonne
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Forest-steppe Gyul'chachak (Peony forest-steppe)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Lomovete
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Golubinskiye Sands
Russia (European) Shakinski oak forest
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Ratsynska Dacha Zakaznik
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Ukraine National Park Stara Guta
Ukraine Vodorazdil'ni i Zovnishni Gorgany
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Jordan Dana
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Tyszowce Site
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Russia (European) Staromainskiy forest and bay
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Turkey Kelkit Valley
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Akseki and İbradı Forests
Russia (European) Tul'skiye Zaseki forest
Russia (European) Schuch'i Gori area
Russia (European) Kundryuchenskiye sands
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Snake hills
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Subcarpaţii Vrancei
Romania Fizes valley
Kazakhstan Almaty State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Roztocze
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Spain El Rebollar
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Armenia Haghartsin
Moldova Costești – Stânca Lake
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Kenya Boni and Dodori National Reserves
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Moldova Dniester River between Naslavcea - Soroca
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Morocco Jbel Moussa
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Central Zagori and mount Mitsikeli
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Turkmenistan Koytendag

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable passage
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable passage
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Hieraaetus pennatus. Downloaded from on 22/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/03/2023.