Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciata


Taxonomic note
Aquila fasciata (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as A. fasciatus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 48,500,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 58,900,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000-49999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,100-1,200 pairs, which equates to 2,100-2,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 21,000-24,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is declining drastically throughout its range owing to over-use of pesticides, habitat degradation, loss of prey species, collision with power lines and persecution by hunters and pigeon fanciers (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Barov and Derhé 2011). In Europe the population size is currently stable, but it is estimated to have decreased in the past at a rate approaching 30% in 54 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native yes
Austria extant vagrant yes
Azerbaijan extant uncertain yes
Bangladesh extant vagrant yes
Belgium extant vagrant yes
Bhutan extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant vagrant yes
Denmark extant vagrant yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant native yes
France extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant vagrant yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Hong Kong (China) extant native yes
Hungary extant vagrant yes
India extant native yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant vagrant yes
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant vagrant yes
Laos extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Libya extant native yes
Luxembourg extant vagrant yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Mongolia extant vagrant yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native yes
Myanmar extant native yes
Nepal extant native yes
Netherlands extant vagrant yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Romania extant vagrant yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant vagrant yes
Spain extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant vagrant yes
Sweden extant vagrant yes
Syria extant native yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes
Timor-Leste extant native yes
Tunisia extant native yes
Turkey extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Vietnam extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Adelphoi Forest - Papoutsa
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
France Basse Ardêche
France Basses Corbières
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Amorgos island
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Italy Mount Cofano, Cape San Vito and Mount Sparagio
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Palestine Wadi Al-Qelt
Portugal Cabrela
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Luzianes
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Monchique
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Spain Alange
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Antequera mountain range-El Chorro
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Ayllón mountain range
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Canyons on the middle section of the Cabriel river
Spain Cardó, Tivissa and Llabería mountains
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Echauri crags
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain Entrepeñas and Buendía reservoirs
Spain Espadán mountain range
Spain Gádor mountain range
Spain Garraf - Ordal - Foix
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain La Safor and North Alicante mountain ranges
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Marina mountain ranges
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montagut and Montmell mountains
Spain Montsant and Prades mountains
Spain Morella pass
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Mountain ranges of Cordoba
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Mountain ranges south of Jaén
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Obarenes mountains
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain River Mundo and river Segura canyons
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Serra Calderona
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Turkey Bodrum Peninsula
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Turkey Dicle Valley
Turkey Dilek Peninsula
Turkey Foça Peninsula
Turkey Küpeli Mountain
Yemen Jabal Bura
Yemen Wadi al-Birayn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3750 m

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Aquila fasciata. Downloaded from on 03/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/06/2023.