Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciata


Taxonomic note
Aquila fasciata (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as A. fasciatus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 48,500,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 58,900,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000-49999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,100-1,200 pairs, which equates to 2,100-2,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 21,000-24,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is declining drastically throughout its range owing to over-use of pesticides, habitat degradation, loss of prey species, collision with power lines and persecution by hunters and pigeon fanciers (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Barov and Derhé 2011). In Europe the population size is currently stable, but it is estimated to have decreased in the past at a rate approaching 30% in 54 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant Yes
Azerbaijan U Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania V Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
Cyprus Adelphoi Forest - Papoutsa
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Côa valley
Palestine Wadi Al-Qelt
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Prasson gorge, Crete
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Andros island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Anafi island
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Mount Pilio
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Northern Chios
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Líjar mountain range-Zaframagon crag
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Mountain ranges of Cordoba
Spain Mountain ranges south of Jaén
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Marina mountain ranges
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos
Spain Espadán mountain range
Spain Peñagolosa
Spain Morella pass
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain Montsant and Prades mountains
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Monfragüe
Spain River Mundo and river Segura canyons
Spain Canyons on the middle section of the Cabriel river
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges
Spain Entrepeñas and Buendía reservoirs
Spain Ayllón mountain range
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Ricote and Nevela mountain ranges
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges
Spain La Safor and North Alicante mountain ranges
Spain Montagut and Montmell mountains
Spain Cardó, Tivissa and Llabería mountains
Spain Alange
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Arnedillo-Isasa crag
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Fausilla mountains
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Humada-Peña Amaya
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Obarenes mountains
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Tabernas desert
Spain Gádor mountain range
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Antequera mountain range-El Chorro
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain West Andévalo
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Lower course of the river Huerva
Spain River Guadalope
Spain River Jalón canyon
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain River Mesa canyons
Spain Echauri crags
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain Montes Universales-Albarracín mountain range
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña
Spain Sierra de Aracena
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Camargue
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Montagne de la Clape
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Minervois
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Bois de Palayson, du Rouet et de Malvoisin
France Basse Ardêche
Italy Egadi islands
Italy Mount Cofano, Cape San Vito and Mount Sparagio
Italy Mount Arcosu
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Italy Rocca Busambra
Italy Madonie
Italy Mount Beigua
Albania Vlora Bay, Karaburun Peninsula and Cika mountain
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Sara mountain
Croatia Cetina River
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Prvic island
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Bodrum Islands
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cabrela
Portugal Serra de Monchique
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal Luzianes
France Crau
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Plaine des Maures
France Massif des Albères
France Parc National du Mercantour
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Deh Bakhri area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Jordan Dana
United Arab Emirates Masafi - Tayibah area
Yemen Wadi al-Birayn
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Turkey Küpeli Mountain
Turkey Dicle Valley
Turkey Datça and Bozburun peninsula
Turkey Dilek Peninsula
Turkey Foça Peninsula
Italy Peloritani mountains
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Troodos Forest
Spain Garraf - Ordal - Foix
Spain Serra Calderona
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
Portugal São Pedro Sólis
Portugal São Vicente
Yemen Jabal Bura
Turkey Bodrum Peninsula
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Tinos island and surrounding islets
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mount Zakrou, Crete
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Turkmenistan Koytendag

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3750 m

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Aquila fasciata. Downloaded from on 28/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/06/2022.