LC
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 54.29081726 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 66,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 14000000-29999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.3,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 1,080,000-2,110,000 pairs, which equates to 2,160,000-4,220,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 14,400,000-28,150,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was strongly increasing (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania V Extant
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of V Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Turkey N Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Litokaira
Finland Luosto
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Reisa
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Yugyd Va

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Bombycilla garrulus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.