Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass 54 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 27,500,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 66,100,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 14000000-29999999 mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend increasing - estimated -
Generation length 4.6 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.3,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 1,080,000-2,110,000 pairs, which equates to 2,160,000-4,220,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 14,400,000-28,150,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was strongly increasing (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant uncertain
Albania extant vagrant
Algeria extant vagrant
Armenia extant native
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant vagrant
Bulgaria extant native yes
Canada extant native
China (mainland) extant native
Croatia extant vagrant
Cyprus extant vagrant
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes
Estonia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes
Georgia extant native
Germany extant native yes
Greece extant native
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant vagrant
India extant vagrant
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Ireland extant native
Israel extant vagrant
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native
Kazakhstan extant native
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Liechtenstein extant vagrant
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malta extant vagrant
Moldova extant native
Mongolia extant native
Montenegro extant vagrant
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
North Korea extant native
North Macedonia extant vagrant
Norway extant native yes
Pakistan extant native
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant vagrant
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant vagrant
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
South Korea extant native
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant vagrant
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Tajikistan extant native
Türkiye extant native
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Litokaira
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Luosto
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya Gulf
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty Islands
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Bombycilla garrulus. Downloaded from on 24/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/02/2024.