VU
Bogota Rail Rallus semiplumbeus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,200 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 400
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3700 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 5 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The species is localised, but fairly common in suitable habitat (Taylor and Sharpe 2020). Based on an observed population density of 68 individuals/km2 at Laguna de Tota and under the assumption that 50% of the remaining habitat is occupied, the total population has been estimated at 5,600 individuals (Renjifo et al. 2016). This roughly equates to 3,700 mature individuals.
The population structure has not been investigated. It is hypothesised that the species forms several subpopulations separated by mountain ranges (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020; L. Rosselli and F. G. Stiles in litt. 2020), though this requires confirmation (see Renjifo et al. 2016; Taylor and Sharpe 2020). Based on the spatial spread of sites with high concentrations of the species, it is here tentatively assumed that the species forms five subpopulations, the largest of which may well number below 1,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a population decline as suitable habitat within its range is destructed and degraded; it has disappeared from some localities that were formerly occupied (Renjifo et al. 2016; L. Rosselli and F. G. Stiles in litt. 2020; Taylor and Sharpe 2020). Observational data suggests that the population is experiencing steep declines of up to 40% over ten years in some wetlands (L. Rosselli and F. G. Stiles in litt. 2020), in other wetlands the population seems to remain stable (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020), while in others it fluctuates or even increases over time (Novoa Salamanca 2014). Fundación ProAves (in litt. 2020) have placed the overall decline in the band 10-19% over ten years, but to account for varying trend estimates and more rapid declines in some areas, it is precautionarily assumed that the rate of decline may be steeper than this. It is thus here placed in the band 10-29% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Peru N Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Complejo Lacustre de Fúquene, Cucunubá y Palacio
Colombia Gravilleras del Valle del Río Siecha
Colombia Humedales de la Sabana de Bogotá
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza and surroundings
Colombia Bosques de la Falla del Tequendama
Colombia Laguna de Tota

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands major resident
Altitude 2500 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 2100 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Rallus semiplumbeus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/01/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/01/2022.