Bluethroat Cyanecula svecica


Taxonomic note
Cyanecula svecica (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Luscinia following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 & supplements); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 18.25866699 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 41,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 35000000-64999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) estimate the global population to number 2,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 4,460,000-7,760,000 pairs, which equates to 8,930,000-15,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 35,720,000-62,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Canada N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Hundsfeld
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Machland
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium Demervallei
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Croatia Middle Drava River
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Upper Drava River
Czechia Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds
Czechia Ceskolipsko - Dokeské pískovce sandstones and wetlands
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Marais de Brière
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Alluvion of the Lower Schwalm near Borken
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, northern oxbow
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, southern oxbow
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Philippsburger Altrhein and Rheinschanzinsel
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Reedbeds between Gimbsheim and Oppenheim incl. Fischsee
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Rhine flats Altlußheim-Mannheim
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Selz valley between Hahnheim and Ingelheim
Germany Silzenwiesen and Bruch near Stettfeld
Germany Uckertal / Unteruckersee
Germany Untermain
Germany Voslapper Groden
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Werderland
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Wetterau
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Velence Lake–Dinnyés Lake
Lithuania Birzulius-Stervas marshes complex
Lithuania Kazimieravas lake with surrounding wetlands
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Wetland complex of the Baltoji Voke fish-farm with neighbouring turbary and lake Papis
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Deurnsche Peel & Mariapeel
Netherlands Groote Peel
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Irrigation Fields in Wroclaw
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Peatbogs at Wieprz River
Poland Swidwie Site
Portugal Barrinha de Esmoriz/Lagoa de Paramos
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Portugal Tejo estuary
Romania Comana
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater Springs and Oases suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cyanecula svecica. Downloaded from on 23/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/09/2019.