NT
Blue-winged Macaw Primolius maracana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2013 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d; C1
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 256 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,390,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.2 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to be in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals in total, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 individuals.

Trend justification: A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss, capture for the cage-bird trade and persecution as a crop pest.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Boa Nova / Serra da Ouricana
Brazil Cafundó e Bananal do Norte
Brazil Chapada do Araripe
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo
Brazil Curaçá
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Uruçuí-Una
Brazil Fazenda Pindobas IV e Arredores
Brazil Fazenda Santana
Brazil Ilha de Marajó
Brazil Itarana
Brazil Mocambinho
Brazil Murici
Brazil Nascentes do Rio Parnaíba
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Doce
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães e Adjacências
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros e Adjacências
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena e Entorno
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Capivara
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Brazil Parque Nacional do Caparaó
Brazil Raso da Catarina
Brazil Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural SESC Pantanal e Entorno
Brazil Serra da Canastra
Brazil Serra do Caraça
Brazil Serra do Gado Bravo e entorno
Brazil Serra do Teimoso
Brazil Serra Negra (Floresta)
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Vitória da Conquista
Paraguay Arroyo Blanco
Paraguay Cerro Guazú
Paraguay Estancia Itabó
Paraguay Ypané Medio

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Primolius maracana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/08/2019.