NT
Blue-winged Macaw Primolius maracana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2013 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d; C1
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 256 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,390,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.2 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to be in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals in total, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 individuals.

Trend justification: A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss, capture for the cage-bird trade and persecution as a crop pest.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Paraguay Arroyo Blanco
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros e Adjacências
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Capivara
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Uruçuí-Una
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões
Brazil Nascentes do Rio Parnaíba
Brazil Chapada do Araripe
Brazil Serra Negra (Floresta)
Brazil Murici
Brazil Serra do Gado Bravo e entorno
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães e Adjacências
Brazil Curaçá
Brazil Raso da Catarina
Brazil Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural SESC Pantanal e Entorno
Brazil Ilha de Marajó
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo
Brazil Mocambinho
Brazil Jalapão
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina
Brazil Fazenda Santana
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Doce
Brazil Serra do Caraça
Brazil Serra da Canastra
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro
Brazil Boa Nova / Serra da Ouricana
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Vitória da Conquista
Brazil Serra do Teimoso
Brazil Itarana
Brazil Fazenda Pindobas IV e Arredores
Brazil Encostas da Região de Domingos Martins
Brazil Cafundó e Bananal do Norte
Brazil Parque Nacional do Caparaó
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Paraguay Cerro Guazú
Paraguay Estancia Itabó
Paraguay Ypané Medio
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena e Entorno

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Primolius maracana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/07/2020.