Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea


Anon. 2005. Cold, dry weather hits Blue Swallows. Laniarius 97: 9-11.

Anon. 2005. Results of the 2004 national Blue Swallow count. KZN Birds 12: 9.

Arnott, W. 2004. Blue swallow monitoring. KZN Birds 10: 10.

Bennun, L.; Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Nature Kenya, Nairobi.

Berruti, A.; McIntosh, B.; Walter, R.; Durban, I. 1995. Parasitism of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea by the Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator. Ostrich 66: 94.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Evans, S. W. 2000. The Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea. Endangered Wildlife 35: 35.

Evans, S. W. and Barnes, K. N. 2000. Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea. In: K. N. Barnes (ed.), The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, pp. 32–34. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Evans, S. W.; Baker, E. M.; Baker, N. E.; Cilliers, D. 2016. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea in the southern Tanzanian highlands. Ostrich 87(1): 37-46.

Evans, S. W.; Bouwman, H. 2010. Historical and current distribution, population size and current migration routes of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea in Africa. Bird Conservation International 20: 240-254.

Evans, S., Cohen, L., Sande, E., Monadjem, A., Hoffmann, D., Mattison, H., Newbery, P., Ndanganga, K.; Friedmann, Y. 2002. Blue Swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) International Action Plan. Final Workshop Report.

Evans, S.W., Monadjem, A., Roxburgh, L., McKechnie, A.E., Baker, E.M., Kizungu, R.B., Little, I.T., Matsvimbo, F., Mulwa, R.K., Mwizabi, D., Nalwanga, D., Ndang'ang'a, K. and Combrink, L. 2015. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea Sundevall 1850 in Africa. Ostrich 86(3): 195-211.

Holroyd, G. L.; Quinn, M.S. Undated. The Blue Swallows (Hirundo atrocaerulea) of Nyika National Park, Malawi.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Johnson, D. N. 1996. Digging for the Blue Swallow - does it work? Is it ethical? Lammergeyer 44: 46-49.

Keith, S.; Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H. 1992. The Birds of Africa Vol. IV. Academic Press, London.

Kylin, H., Bouwman, H. and Evans, S. W. 2011. Evaluating threats to an endangered species by proxy: air pollution as threat to the blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) in South Africa. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18: 282-290.

Mattison, H. 2003. Report on the 2002/2003 Blue Swallow breeding season; Kwazulu-Natal. KZN Birds: 19-20.

Mattison, H. 2004. Results of the national Blue Swallow count. KZN Birds: 18-19.

McKechnie, A.; Little, I. 2012. Teetering: South Africa's Blue Swallows in trouble. Africa - Birds & Birding 17: 28-33.

Meikle, J. 2010. Blue Swallow behaviour and breeding in Penhalonga. Honeyguide 56(1): 52-54.

Meikle, J. 2012. Pre-migratory behaviour of Blue Swallows. Honeyguide 59(2): 120-121.

Monadjem, A.; Boycott, R.C.; Roques, K.; Gama, R.; Garcelon, D. 2006. Nest success and conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea in Swaziland. Bird Conservation International 16(3): 187-196.

Nasirwa, O.; Njoroge, P. 1997. Papyrus-endemic birds in the fringing swamps of Lake Victoria, Western Kenya.

Ndang'ang'a, P. K. 2007. Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea in Kenya: status survey and conservation options. Scopus 26: 1-9.

Ndanganga, P. 2004. Monitoring Blue Swallows. Nature East Africa 34: 25-26.

Parker, V. 1994. Swaziland bird atlas 1985--1991. Webster's, Mbabane.

Rijke, A. M., Jesser, W. A., Evans, S. W. and Bouwman, H. 2000. Water repellency and feather structure of the blue swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea. Ostrich 71 71: 143-145.

Turner, A.; Rose, C. 1989. Swallows and martins of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Wakelin, J. 2004. Diminishing returns: critical times for South Africa's Blue Swallows. Africa - Birds & Birding: 42-46.

Wakelin, J.; Wilson, A.-L.; Downs, C. T. 2013. Ground cavity nest temperatures and their relevance to Blue swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea conservation. Ostrich 84(3): 221-226.

Further resources

International Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Hirundo atrocaerulea. Downloaded from on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2021.