Justification of Red List Category
This newly split and forest-associated species is listed as Near Threatened because it is assumed to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline owing to the extensive loss of lowland forests from large areas of the Sundaic lowlands, and it may be impacted by trade. It is not considered more threatened because it can use secondary and modified habitats and also occurs in (less threatened) lower montane forest.
The global population size has not been formally quantified, but it is thought to number more than 100,000 individuals (Juniper and Parr 1998), and the species is described as common in primary habitat and uncommon in secondary habitats and plantations (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
Overall forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 has been estimated at 23.7% for Sumatra, 12.0% for Borneo and 8.2% for Peninsular Malaysia (Miettinen et al. 2011). On Sumatra, it has been estimated that c.36% of primary forest cover in 1990 was lost by 2010 (including degraded primary forest) (Margono et al. 2012). Declines are compounded by trapping pressure; however, the species's use of forest fragments, logged forest, secondary growth, other modified habitats and habitats at higher elevations implies that it has avoided rapid declines. Nevertheless, much lowland forest has been clear-felled. It is therefore suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline.
Psittinus cyanurus is confined to the Sundaic lowlands, where it is known from southern Tenasserim, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan, Sumatra (including the Riau, Lingga, Bangka, Mentawai islands), Indonesia and Brunei (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife International 2001). It is only locally common and generally rarer than sympatric Psittacula species. It was once thought to be very rare in Singapore's remnant forest areas; however, it has become more frequently recorded as observers gain better access to the canopy (D. L. Yong in litt. 2013). The global population is thought to be in excess of 100,000 individuals, but declining (Juniper and Parr 1998).
It inhabits primary, dry-land evergreen and semi-evergreen lowland forest, both mature and selectively logged, and also visits edge vegetation, cultivated areas and gap-phase growth of forest clearings and occasionally mangroves, up to 1,300 m, although generally below 700 m (Juniper and Parr 1998). It appears to be more readily observed in areas with some logging activity, possibly preferring secondary and logged forest, and has been noted to feed on the fruits of ornamental plants (D. L. Yong in litt. 2013). It is gregarious and regularly forms flocks of up to 20 individuals (Juniper and Parr 1998). Breeding occurs in February to May in Malaysia, and June to September in Borneo (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998).
Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia and Malaysia has been extensive in recent decades (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). Rates of overall forest loss between 2000 and 2010 have been estimated at 23.7% for Sumatra, 12.0% for Borneo and 8.2% for Peninsular Malaysia (Miettinen et al. 2011). On Sumatra, it has been estimated that c.36% of primary forest cover in 1990 was lost by 2010 (including degraded primary forest) (Margono et al. 2012). The destruction tall primary Dipterocarp forest in areas of level terrain has been comprehensive in the Sundaic Region, but the impacts of this on the species are unclear (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2013). Declines are compounded by trapping for the cage-bird industry; however, the species's use of logged and fragmented forest, secondary growth, other modified areas and habitats at higher elevations implies that it has not suffered rapid declines.
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Some of the species's habitat is protected, for example in Way Kambas National Park (Sumatra), Danum Valley (Sabah, Malaysia), and Taman Negara and Panti Forest Reserve (Peninsular Malaysia) (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2013, D. L. Yong in litt. 2013).
18 cm. A fairly small, stocky parrot with a very short tail. Adult males have a blue head and rump, bluish underparts and dark grey mantle, green wings and tail. Females are mostly green with a grey-brown head and some blue on the rump. Similar spp. P. abbotti (which does not occur with P. cyanurus) is mostly green, with a green forehead to the blue head and fairly narrow black hindneck. Voice. Shrill, chittering chi, chi, chi or chu-ee notes in flight.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Martin, R, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
Bishop, K. & Yong, D.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Psittinus cyanurus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/10/2019.