Blue Rock-thrush Monticola solitarius


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 50 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 66,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 78,500,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000000-3999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 110,000-237,000 pairs, which equates to 219,000-474,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,460,000-3,160,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Japan and possibly c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Austria V Extinct
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Macao (China) N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Monaco N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau V Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malta Rdum Tal-Madonna
Malta Ta'Cenc cliffs
Andorra Pirineo de Andorra
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Slovenia Karst
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Prasson gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Galaxidi
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Spain Tabernas desert
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Tiermes-Caracena
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Marina mountain ranges
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Vallée du Régino
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Iles d'Hyères
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Bois de Palayson, du Rouet et de Malvoisin
France Basse Ardêche
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Coast between Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Ausoni and Aurunci mountains
Italy Nebrodi
Italy Capri island
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Argentario
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Italy Carso
Italy Mount Pecoraro and Pizzo Cirina
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Anapo gorges
Italy Ponziane islands
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Lepini mountains
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Armenia Meghri
France Iles Sanguinaires
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
France Basses Corbières
Jordan Dana
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan
Italy Grigne
Italy Finalese
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Uly Balkan
Italy Val d'Ossola
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Malta Xlendi Bay to Wardija Point Cliffs
Malta Dwejra Bay to San Dimitri Point
Malta Comino island
Spain Fuentes Carrionas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas marginal resident
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Monticola solitarius. Downloaded from on 09/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/12/2022.