LC
Blue Petrel Halobaena caerulea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 96,500,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.4 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number at least 3,000,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Analysis of the proportion of Blue Petrels in skua diets by Cerfonteyn and Ryan (2016) suggests that despite the initial rapid increase in breeding success, petrel numbers on Marion Island have not substantially recovered following the eradication of cats there in 1991. It is possible that recovery rates are being negatively affected by the predation of chicks and eggs by introduced house mice (Mus musculus) (Dilley et al., 2017). Additionally, surveys by Pacoureau et al., (2019) found evidence of a long-term decline in burrow occupancy of Blue Petrels at Mayes Island, Kerguelen, with a 70% reduction in burrow occupancy between 1992 and 2013. The Prince Edward Islands, which encompasses Marion Island, and the Kerguelen archipelago are thought to support a substantial proportion of the global population (Dilley et al., 2017), and therefore the overall population trend is suspected to be declining.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) U Extant
New Zealand N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins
French Southern Territories Islands of the Golfe du Morbihan
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
Chile Islas Diego Ramírez
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
Chile Parque Nacional Cabo de Hornos
Chile Islas Diego Ramírez y Rocas Norte

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oryctolagus cuniculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Arctocephalus gazella Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Halobaena caerulea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022.