VU
Blue Lorikeet Vini peruviana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iv,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iv,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(ii,iv,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 92,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 508
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4300-6300, 5300 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 7-9 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.41 - - -

Population justification: In the Society Islands, there were possibly up to 250 pairs on Motu One and 350-400 pairs on Manuae respectively in 1973 (Thibault 1974). In 2015, the population size on Manuae was found to be stable and the population on Maupiha'a was estimated to be 200-300 individuals (J.-C. Thibault in litt. 2020). 

In Tuamotu, there were 100-200 birds on Rangiroa, and small flocks on several other atolls in 1973 (D. Holyoak pers. comm. 1973). A minimum of 300 individuals were estimated on Tiamanu Motu in Apataki atoll in 1989 (Lovegrove et al. 1989). On Tikehau, 30 pairs were counted in 1984 (Poulsen et al. 1984), and at least 50 individuals on one motu in 2001 (Serra 2001). Surveys in 2005-2006 estimated populations of 1,258 (+/- 351) on Apataki, 2,546 (+/- 485) on Aruatua, 778 (+/157) on Kaukara, 1,249 (+/-173) on Rangiroa, and 49 (+/24) on Tikehau, resulting in a total population estimate for Tuamotu of 5,879 (+/-643; Ziembicki and Raust 2006). Estimated population densities ranged from 40 individuals per km2 in the presence of rats to 580 individuals per km2 in favourable habitat on Arutua. In 2016, it was reported that the population on Rangiroa was stable (Blanvillain et al. 2016), but that the population on Tikehau was possibly extinct (C. Blanvillain in litt. 2020).

The total population size in French Polynesia is estimated to fall within the range 6,500 - 9,400 individuals, which roughly equates to 4,300 - 6,300 mature individuals, with a best estimate of 5,300 mature individuals.

On Aitutaki, where it was probably introduced, numbers have been estimated at several hundred individuals (Wilson 1993), 2,400 individuals and 1,000 individuals (Raust and Ziembicki 2006). The apparent differences may be attributable to differing census techniques (G. McCormack verbally 1999). In 2009, the island population was estimated at 4,200 individuals (Koutsofta unpub. in Jennings 2011), and following Cyclone Pat in 2010, the island population was estimated at 1,448 birds by distance sampling (Jennings 2011). The population on Aitutaki is not included in the global population size estimate because Aitutaki is unlikely to be part of the species's native range.

The species is able to fly between motus and has been observed flying between islands five kilometres apart (Ziembicki and Raust 2006). In French Polynesia, the species is likely to have between seven and nine subpopulations. The largest is thought to be on Arutua, with an estimated population size of 2,546 (+/- 485) individuals, roughly equating to 1,300 - 2,100 mature individuals, which may represent approximately a third of the total French Polynesian population.

Trend justification: The species has been gradually lost from islands where Black Rats or Swamp Harriers have colonised. Recent range contractions have been recorded. The species is now absent from the eastern Apataki atoll, where it was previously recorded in the 1920s (Ziembicki and Raust 2006). On Tikehau, local people report that the species was previously more widespread and occurred on the main islets a few decades ago (Ziembicki and Raust 2006). On Kaukura, the species disappeared from Faro in the 1980s (Ziembicki and Raust 2006). The population on Tikehau may now be extinct (C. Blanvillain in litt. 2020).

In the Tuamotus, similar numbers of individuals were counted at the same sites during surveys in 2006 as in surveys over the previous 20 years, although the population on some islands appeared to have declined (Raust and Ziembicki 2006; Ziembicki and Raust 2006). The population on Tiamanu Motu in Apataki atoll was allegedly smaller in 1989 than it had been previously (Lovegrove et al. 1989). The populations on Manuae and Rangiroa appeared to be stable in 2015-2016 (Blanvillain et al. 2016; J.-C. Thibault in litt. 2020).

Overall, the species's population size is inferred to be declining. The rate of decline is not known.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cook Islands I Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Maupihaa (Mopelia)
French Polynesia Bellinghausen
French Polynesia Scilly (Manuae)
French Polynesia Motu de l'ouest et du sud de Rangiroa
French Polynesia Tikehau
French Polynesia Kaukura
French Polynesia Arutua
French Polynesia Apataki
French Polynesia Tikehau
French Polynesia Manuae, Motu One et Maupihaa
French Polynesia Apataki, Arutua et Kaukura (Îles Palliser)
Cook Islands Aitutaki

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Circus approximans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Vini peruviana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/12/2022.