VU
Blue Crane Anthropoides paradiseus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A3cde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable A3cde
2018 Vulnerable A3cde
2016 Vulnerable A3cde
2013 Vulnerable A2acde
2012 Vulnerable A2acde
2008 Vulnerable A2a,c,d,e
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,890,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 17000 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Stable medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The population has been estimated at c.25,555 individuals (roughly equivalent to 17,000 mature individuals). The most recent Blue Crane population estimate for South Africa is a minimum of 25,520 individuals, with 2,616 of these in the eastern grasslands, 10,822 in the central Karoo and 12,095 in the Western Cape (McCann et al. 2007); but only 35 individuals in Namibia (Simmons 2015).

Trend justification: In South Africa, numbers in the south and south-western Western Cape have increased as the species has expanded into agricultural areas, while aerial surveys conducted by the Endangered Wildlife Trust and Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife suggest the population in KwaZulu Natal has increased by c.45% over the past decade (unpublished report); although the national population has fallen by half since the 1970s (Archibald and Meine 1996, Barnes 2000). Evidence suggests that the population in the central Karoo region of South Africa is currently stable as the species has adapted to the pasture land use system (Allan 2005, McCann et al. 2007), although it may have increased in the Karoo since the 1980s (Shaw et al. 2015). In Namibia the population may be currently roughly stable (R. Simmons in litt. 2007), although it has declined there since the 1970s (Simmons 2015, A. Scott and M. Scott in litt. 2018)

The Southern African Bird Atlas Project 2 data shows that the decline in the traditional grassland stronghold has continued, but the past decline in this species is predicted to have been c.15% over the last 3 generations (Shaw 2015). However, its habitat is under severe threat of degradation and destruction due to open cast coal and uranium mining, potential gas extraction and agriculture, as well as by a change in the agricultural landscape due to changes in the climate and socio-economic factors (K. Morrison in litt. 2016). There is a strong potential that there will be significant habitat loss in the future, which will lead to a reduction in the population (K. Morrison in litt. 2016). Additional threats that could impact the population over the next 3 generations include power line collisions, wind farms and capture for trade. Therefore it is tentatively suspected that a potential 30-49% reduction may occur over the next 3 generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Botswana V Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Lesotho V Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Namibia Etosha National Park
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District
South Africa Boland Mountains
South Africa Camdeboo National Park
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve
South Africa Devon Grasslands
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Hlatikulu
South Africa Impendle Nature Reserve
South Africa Ithala Game Reserve
South Africa Kouga - Baviaanskloof Complex
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
South Africa Langeberg Mountains
South Africa Magaliesberg
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve
South Africa Overberg Wheatbelt
South Africa Pilanesberg National Park
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy
South Africa Rooiberge-Riemland
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Umgeni Vlei Nature Reserve
South Africa Umvoti Vlei
South Africa Waterberg System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Savanna Dry marginal unset
Savanna Moist marginal unset
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal unset
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anthropoides paradiseus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/01/2020.