Justification of Red List Category
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small population which is suspected to be declining significantly owing to habitat loss and possibly trade.
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'rare to uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).
This species is suspected to lose 3-13.2% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (37 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.
Amazona dufresniana occurs in south-east Venezuela (Bolívar, with an isolated record in Amazonas), north Guyana (north of 5°N), north-east Suriname and north-east French Guiana (Wege and Collar 1991). There are reports from Pará and Amapá, Brazil, where its occurrence seems probable, but no conclusive records (Wege and Collar 1991, Collar 1995). The scarcity of records from frequently surveyed areas suggests that this is a low density and rather uncommon species, at least in some parts of its range (Wege and Collar 1991). In Guyana, healthy populations are known from the Aruka area in north-west Guyana between the Aruka and Amakuru rivers, Kaieteur National Park and the Kuribrong river, and the Iwokrama Forest Reserve (A. Narine in litt. 2010)
It inhabits humid forest and cloud-forest in the lower subtropical zone but is also known from woodlands in forest-savanna mosaic in Venezuela (Wege and Collar 1991). Most birds in the Guianas have been reported from gallery forest (Wege and Collar 1991), but this may be an artefact of river transport use by observers (Juniper and Parr 1998). There are some seasonal movements, apparently in response to food availability, from interior to coastal Suriname in July-August (Wege and Collar 1991, Juniper and Parr 1998). It occurs up to 1,700 m in Venezuela and 560 m in Guyana (Wege and Collar 1991).
It has probably declined since the 19th century as a result of trapping for trade and habitat loss, particularly in the Gran Sabana region of Bolívar and parts of coastal Guianas (Wege and Collar 1991). It was internationally traded in small numbers during the 1980s, and this has continued especially in Guyana, where 321 were exported in 2002, and Suriname (CITES 2004). Annual export quotas are 520 for Guyana and 70 for Suriname (O. Ottema in litt. 2008). Some internal trade also continues, perhaps most frequently for food and pets in the far east of its range (Desenne and Strahl 1991, Wege and Collar 1991).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Recorded from Canaima National Park (Venezuela), Iwokrama Forest Reserve (Guyana) and Brownsberg Nature Park (Suriname).
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Amazona dufresniana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/03/2019.