NT
Blue-cheeked Amazon Amazona dufresniana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d; C1
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass 623 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 950,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 6000-61000 mature individuals poor inferred 2020
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2019-2063
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Generation length 14.74 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: The species is described as locally common in French Guiana and Venezuela (Hilty 2003, GEPOG per O. Claessens and V. Pelletier in litt. 2020), but as rare to uncommon in the remainder of its range in Guyana and Suriname (Stotz et al. 1996, O. Ottema in litt. 2020), though it may be overlooked (O. Ottema in litt. 2020). The population in French Guiana is estimated at 2,000-20,000 individuals (GEPOG per O. Claessens and V. Pelletier in litt. 2020), which may roughly equate to 1,300-13,000 mature individuals.

Assuming a similar density in Venezuela, the population there may number 500-5,000 mature individuals. Assuming further that the species reaches half the density in Guyana, Suriname and Brazil, the population in these range states may amount to 4,300-43,000 mature individuals. The global population is therefore tentatively placed in the band 6,000-61,000 mature individuals, though this requires confirmation.

Although there is little information about the species's subpopulation structure, the species is monotypic and there is no evidence to suggest that there are distinct subpopulations, so it is assumed that there is only one subpopulation.

Trend justification: While trapping for the cagebird trade has been a threat in the past, this now has only minor impacts on the population size, if at all (Dickey 2020, O. Ottema in litt. 2020). Habitat loss is low within the range, and large tracts of forests are still in pristine conditions (Tracewski et al. 2016, O. Ottema in litt. 2020). However, inland forests are increasingly logged and degraded through gold mining (O. Ottema in litt. 2020).  Over 19 years from 2001-2019, approximately 1% of tree cover with at least 30% canopy cover was lost within the species's mapped range (Global Forest Watch 2020). Scaled to three generations (44.22 years), this would equate to a loss of 2%. Over 2016-2019, approximately 0.4% of tree cover was lost within the species's range (Global Forest Watch 2020). If this rate were to continue for three generations (44.22 years), approximately 4% of tree cover within the species's range could be lost. The species is therefore tentatively suspected to be undergoing a slow decline at a rate of <10% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Brazil extant native yes
French Guiana extant native yes
Guyana extant native yes
Suriname extant native yes
Venezuela extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Parque Nacional Canaima
Venezuela Parque Nacional Parima-Tapirapecó
Suriname Bakhuys mountains
French Guiana Parc Amazonien de Guyane et Saül
French Guiana Nouragues
French Guiana Trinité

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 1700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Amazona dufresniana. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/blue-cheeked-amazon-amazona-dufresniana on 04/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 04/03/2024.