Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna


Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 20.9-35.3% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (38 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, given the species's tolerance of fragmentation/degradation/edge-effects and/or the extent of overall losses, it is suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Distribution and population


The species has been heavily traded: since 1981, when it was listed on CITES Appendix II, 55,531 wild-caught individuals have been recorded in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.


Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S. & Ekstrom, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Ara ararauna. Downloaded from on 17/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/10/2017.