Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 321 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000000-10499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,110,000-1,820,000 pairs, which equates to 2,210,000-3,630,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 6,300,000-10,400,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The species has expanded its range in western Europe, central Europe and Japan (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (p<0.01) (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Vienna forest
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Mt Bilogora and Kalnik
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains
Czech Republic Doupov hills
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czech Republic Labské pískovce sandstones
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Denmark Almindingen
Denmark Gribskov Area
Denmark Rold Skov
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lahemaa
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Bassigny
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Forêt de la Reine
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Forêts du Perche
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Forêts picardes : massif de Saint-Gobain
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Plateau Ardennais
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Aspromonte
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Picentini mountains
Italy Sila Grande
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Razna
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east
Luxembourg Mines of the region of Differdange
Moldova Central Forest
Netherlands Brabantse Wal
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold & Leggelderveld
Netherlands Maasduinen
Netherlands Sallandse Heuvelrug
Netherlands Veluwe
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Grădiştea Muncelului
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovakia Volovské hills
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Degaña-Hermo
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain Muniellos
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Riaño
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 100 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Dryocopus martius. Downloaded from on 19/08/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/08/2018.