LC
Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass 321 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 38,900,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 6000000-10499999 mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend increasing - suspected -
Generation length 5.8 years - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,110,000-1,820,000 pairs, which equates to 2,210,000-3,630,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 6,300,000-10,400,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The species has expanded its range in western Europe, central Europe and Japan (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (p<0.01) (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Albania extant native yes
Andorra extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes
Estonia extant native yes
Finland extant native yes
France extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Greece extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Moldova extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Netherlands extant native yes
North Korea extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant vagrant
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
South Korea extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Poland Knyszyn Forest
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Forêts du Perche
France Plateau Ardennais
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Bassigny
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Forêt de la Reine
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Forêts picardes : massif de Saint-Gobain
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Denmark Gribskov Area
Denmark Almindingen
Denmark Rold Skov
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Westerzgebirge around Carlsfeld
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Kellerwald
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lahemaa
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Doupov hills
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Labské pískovce sandstones
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Razna
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Vienna forest
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Dolomites
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Lake Solgen
Italy Stelvio National Park
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Italy Gran Paradiso
Slovakia Laborecká upland
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Germany Lauerholz
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Spreewald
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Stechlin
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Stromberg
Germany Sachsenwald
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Forests south of Wolfsburg
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Solling
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Burgwald
Germany Riedforst near Melsungen
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Egge
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard
Luxembourg Mines of the region of Differdange
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Grădiştea Muncelului
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Roztocze
Spain Muniellos
Spain Degaña-Hermo
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Riaño
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella
Spain Posets-Maladeta
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Cadí mountains
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Mt Bilogora and Kalnik
Netherlands Brabantse Wal
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold & Leggelderveld
Netherlands Dwingelderveld
Netherlands Maasduinen
Netherlands Veluwe
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Golija
Serbia Homolje
Serbia Kucaj-Beljanica
Serbia Tara mountain

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 100 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Dryocopus martius. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/black-woodpecker-dryocopus-martius on 24/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 24/02/2024.