Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2012 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c; A3b,c; A4b,c
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Data Deficient
2000 Data Deficient
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 97.19999695 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,560,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,400,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: Survey work in Kazakhstan and subsequent re-calculation of bird numbers across the known range of the species would suggest a world population of 76,000-95,000 pairs, roughly equivalent to 220,000-290,000 individuals in total. This upward revision of breeding numbers is reasonable given the large flocks recently reported on the wintering grounds, e.g. a flock of 76,000 individuals recorded at Vaal Dam in South Africa on the wintering grounds. An even larger flock of 250,000-800,000 individuals in Orange Free State in South Africa in 1991 suggests the population may be (or might have been) even larger.

Trend justification: The most significant European population (in European Russia) was reported to have declined steeply during 1990-2000, and overall the species declined by more than 50% over ten years (BirdLife International 2004). The most recent assessment of the European population estimated the rate of decline at 30-49% in 21.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). The species is increasing in central and north-east Kazakhstan and south-east Russia. Trends in Central Asia are likely to determine the global status of the species, and there is evidence that some colonies have disappeared. Overall declines of approximately 20% are suspected.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Equatorial Guinea V Extant
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Gabon V Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Ghana V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Libya N Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant Yes Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles V Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Somalia V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria V Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Angola Luando Strict Nature Reserve
Botswana Lake Ngami
Botswana Linyanti swamp/Chobe river
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans
Botswana Okavango Delta
Burundi Kigwena Forest Nature Reserve
Ethiopia Baro river
Georgia Batumi
Iraq Attariya Plains
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Zevulun valley
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Aktubek
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Namibia Eastern Caprivi wetlands
Namibia Etosha National Park
Namibia Mahango Game Reserve and Kavango river
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Russia (Central Asian) Abushkan lake
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Burekesken Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Chuburat Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Katai lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kharitonovsky complex of lakes and marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Kisloe
Russia (Central Asian) Lyapuniha Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Puchina area
Russia (Central Asian) Uryadki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Chonta
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Drofiny area
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Novokvasnikovski liman
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system
Russia (European) Sostinskiye lakes
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Varfolomeyevskiye saltmarshes
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Nyl River Floodplain
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Tanzania Serengeti National Park
Tanzania Usangu flats
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Uganda Kidepo Valley National Park
Uganda Murchison Falls National Park
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites unset resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes unset breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Glareola nordmanni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2019.