Justification of Red List Category
This parrot qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small population that is undergoing a continuing decline owing to exploitation for the cagebird trade and loss of lowland forest. However there is very little recent data on this species, which may be declining more rapidly, or may be secure, on Supiori.
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Logging and subsistence agriculture have driven forest loss within its range and hunting pressure continues to represent a threat. Consequently the species is suspected to be in decline at a moderate rate.
Eos cyanogenia is endemic to the Geelvink Islands of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia, where it is known from the islands of Biak-Supiori, and the much smaller islands of Numfor, Manim and Mios Num (Mayr and Meyer de Schauensee 1939, Beehler et al. 1986). On Biak, it is fairly common in patchy forest, although it has sometimes been recorded in flocks of 40-60 (Gibbs 1993, Collar et al. 1994, B. Beehler and S. van Balen in litt. 2000, M. Van Beirs in litt. 2000). On Supiori, it is common, although less so at higher altitudes (Bishop 1982, Gibbs 1993). It is nomadic, making it difficult to assess its true numbers but, on Biak, it appears it declined notably between 1982 and 1995 (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000).
It is a gregarious species which apparently feeds chiefly in inland forest, up to 460 m (although becoming less common at altitudes above 200 m on Supiori, at least), and roosts in coconut plantations and nearby coastal forest (Bishop 1982). It is common in flat forest on Supiori (Gibbs 1993) and still relatively common in secondary forest on Biak (N. Bostock in litt. 1993), but is absent from low scrubby regrowth (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000).
Relatively large numbers have been trapped for the domestic and international trade (Nash 1990b, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1994), and this species is commonly observed as a pet on Biak (Bishop 1982). Large areas of forest on Biak have been destroyed or damaged by logging and subsistence farming, particularly the southern plains, and the remainder is under pressure (Bishop 1982, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1996, D. Holmes in litt. 2000). Furthermore, forest does not regenerate easily on areas of raised coralline limestone. Much of Supiori comprises virtually impenetrable, forested limestone mountains, which is likely to be safe from habitat degradation.
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. There are two protected areas on the islands, Biak-Utara (covering 110 km2) and Pulau Supiori (covering 420 km2) Nature Reserves (Sujatnika et al. 1995). It was common in Biak-Utara Reserve in 1997 (B. Beehler and S. van Balen in litt. 2000).
10 cm. Bright red, long-tailed parrot. Violet patch on ear-coverts and black mantle and wing-coverts. Red underwing, yellowish subterminally with narrow black trailing edge. Similar spp. Black-capped Lory Lorius lory has short tail, black cap, green upperwings and purple belly. Red-fronted Lorikeet Charmosyna rubronotata and Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus are largely green. Voice Stronger and shorter screech than T. haematodus. Hints Fairly common around any remnant forest, especially at flowering trees.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Crosby, M., Derhé, M., Dutson, G.
van Balen, B., Holmes, D., van Beirs, M., Bostock, N., Bishop, K., Beehler, B.
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Eos cyanogenia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/03/2021.