LC
Black Tern Chlidonias niger



References

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Gochfeld, M.; Burger, J.; Garcia, E.F.J. 2018. Black Tern (Chlidonias niger). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, pp. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona.

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Linz, G.M.; Blixt, D.C. 1997. Black Terns benefit from cattail management in the Northern Great Plains. Colonial Waterbirds 20(3): 617-621.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Bland, R. L.; Crick, H. Q. P.; Croxton, P. J.; Flood, J.; Loxton, R. G.; Mason, C. F.; Newnham, J.A.; Tryjanowski, P. 2007. How consistent are trends in arrival (and departure) dates of migrant birds in the UK? Journal of Ornithology 148: 503-511.

Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

van der Winden, J. 2002. Disturbance as a important factor in the decline of Black Tern Chlidonias niger in the Netherlands. Vogelwelt 123(1): 33-40.

van der Winden, J. 2005. Black tern Chlidonias niger conservation in the Netherlands - a review. Vogelwelt 126(3): 187-193.

van der Winden, J.; Beintema, A.J.; Heemskerk, L. 2004. Habitat related Black Tern Chlidonias niger breeding success in The Netherlands. Ardea 92(1): 53-61.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Chlidonias niger. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/01/2020.