Black Tern Chlidonias niger


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Gochfeld, M.; Burger, J.; Garcia, E.F.J. 2018. Black Tern (Chlidonias niger). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, pp. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona.

Linz, G.M.; Blixt, D.C. 1997. Black Terns benefit from cattail management in the Northern Great Plains. Colonial Waterbirds 20(3): 617-621.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Urban, E.K.; Fry, C.H.; Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

van der Winden, J. 2002. Disturbance as a important factor in the decline of Black Tern Chlidonias niger in the Netherlands. Vogelwelt 123(1): 33-40.

van der Winden, J. 2005. Black tern Chlidonias niger conservation in the Netherlands - a review. Vogelwelt 126(3): 187-193.

van der Winden, J.; Beintema, A.J.; Heemskerk, L. 2004. Habitat related Black Tern Chlidonias niger breeding success in The Netherlands. Ardea 92(1): 53-61.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Chlidonias niger. Downloaded from on 16/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/09/2019.