LC
Black Tern Chlidonias niger



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 36,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 106,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 800,000-1,750,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 74,400-154,000 pairs, which equates to 149,000-308,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is declining (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, this species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Belize N Extant
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chad V Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Grenada V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Madagascar V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Peru N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda V Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe U Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Labudovo okno
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania A part of the Vasaknos fish-farm
Lithuania Zaltytis
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Cedasas Lake
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Lithuania Birzulius-Stervas marshes complex
Lithuania Sartai Regional Park and Rokiskis Fishponds
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Lobe lake area
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Srebarna
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Fizes valley
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium Krekengebied
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Sweden River Svartån
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden River Helge
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Lake Storhjälmaren
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Insko Site
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Oswin site
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slup reservoir
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Deelen
Netherlands De Wieden
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Värtsilä valley
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Velence Lake–Dinnyés Lake
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Lake Fehér at Gátér
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Vovk river valley
Ukraine Solonyj Lyman lake
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Brenne centrale
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Plaine du Forez
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang de Capestang
France Etang du Bagnas
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Marais de Manteyer
France Basse vallée du Var
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France La Dombes
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Lake Massaciuccoli
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Pools of Florence plain
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Ramsø Mose
Denmark Wetland north of Gammel Havdrup
Denmark Kongens Mose and Draved Skov
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord
Denmark Sønder Ådal
Serbia Jegricka
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Zemplínska Sírava
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Poland Barycz river valley
Turkey Burdur Lake
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Federseeried
Germany Dümmer
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Ammersee
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Alfsee
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Heerter See
Germany Spreewald
Germany Banks of the Müggelspree
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Benin Lake Nokoué
Ghana Densu Delta Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Ghana Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site
Ghana Sakumo Lagoon Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Liberia Lake Piso (Cape Mount)
Senegal Cap Vert
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Mishuryn Rig
Lithuania Lake Druksiai
Ukraine Sosyns'kyj protected area
Lithuania Silale Fishponds
Ukraine Snyvoda river valley
Ukraine Bulakhivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dniprodzerzhyns'ke reservoir
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (European) Faustovo flood-plains of Moscow river
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Tobolo-Kurtamyshskay flood land
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tarutino
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river near Lebedevka and Bugrovoye villages
Jamaica Yallahs
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (European) Bryn'
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala
Latvia Lielupe flood-plain meadows
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Tasu lake
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Augsdaugava
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Lake Lielauce
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Razna
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Etang de Lindre
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Lac Léman (partie française)
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Navashinski district
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Varnavinski zakaznik
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Oka river up-stream of the Murom
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river between the mouth of Klyaz'ma river and Dzerzhinsk
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Canada Peace-Athabasca Delta
Canada Lesser Slave Lake PP
Canada Big Lake
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes
Canada Frank Lake (north)
Canada Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA
Canada Lower St. John River (Sheffield / Jemseg)
Canada North Arm, Great Slave Lake
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Canada Wye Marsh
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Tiny Marsh
Canada Matchedash Bay
Canada Carden Plain
Canada Luther Marsh
Canada Nicolet et Baie-du-Fèbvre
Canada Plaine inondable de Saint-Barthélemy
Canada Île aux Hérons Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Barrage de Beauharnois
Canada Lac Saint-Francois National Wildlife Area and bordering waters
Canada Réserve faunique de Plaisance
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Marais de Saint-Étienne
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Canada Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area
Canada Nicolle Flats
Canada Blackstrap Coulee
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Lithuania Sartai (Sartai Regional park and neighbouring Rokiskis fish-ponds)
Lithuania Kazimieravas lake with surrounding wetlands
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Sweden Lake Vendel
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Italy Ticino river
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Kostrzyn River Valley
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Polesie
Poland Por River Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Netherlands Naardermeer
Belarus Arechaŭskaje
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Netherlands Weerribben
Turkey Çavuşçu Lake
Turkey Balıkdamı
Mexico Tecolutla
Poland Swidwie Site
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Denmark Kogsbøl and Skast Moser
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary
Germany Kudensee
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Russia (European) Ressetinskiye floods
Russia (European) Ptich'ya magistral' area
Russia (European) Tishskaya Dal' area
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Sewage ponds Offenau
Germany Ewiges Meer
Germany Wernauer and Unterensinger gravel pits
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Wetterau
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Eiderstedt
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lake Brateş
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior
Romania Comana
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Suhaia
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Peatbogs at Wieprz River
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Belarus Dakudaŭskaje
Lithuania Smalva Hydrographical Reserve
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Roztocze
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Grzeda Sokalska Beechwood
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Slovenia Črete
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Belarus Ipuć floodplain
Mexico Farallon San Ignacio
Russia (European) Velikomikhailovski fishponds and floodplain of Kholok river
Mexico Lagunas del Playón de Mismaloya
Mexico Sistema Lagunar Superior-Inferior
Mexico Playa Linda–Río Suchiate
Mexico Laguna de Tamiahua
Mexico Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano
Mexico Complejo de Presas de Río Fuerte
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Kazakhstan Ural River Valley
Estonia Koigi
Belarus Čyrvonaja Slabada
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós - marine
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Uiterwaarden Zwarte Water & Vecht
Netherlands Krimpenerwaard
Netherlands Opsterland & Smallingerland
Estonia Lavassaare
Belarus Pripiat
Belarus Tremlia fish farm
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cichla ocellaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Chlidonias niger. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/04/2020.