NT
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c; A3b,c; A4b,c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 118,000,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 614,000-809,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The population is estimated to number 102,000-149,000 pairs in Europe (including 25,000 pairs in Iceland) (BirdLife International 2015); 25,000-100,000 in west-central Asia; 150,000 in central Asia and Siberia (Asian Waterbird Census unpublished data); 160,000 in the rest of Asia and Australia.

Trend justification: There is still some degree of uncertainty about the size and trend of some of the sub-populations. Nevertheless, the available information suggests that the global population has probably declined by between 14% and 33% at a mean rate of approximately 23% over the 25 years leading up to 2015. This estimate is derived from a series of calculations based on best-worse case scenarios using population estimates from Wetlands International (2017), and trend data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census, Asian Waterbird Census, Wetlands International, Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme and forum contributors. Thus the species's trend is currently best placed in the 20-29% band. In Europe, the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 25.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra U Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos U Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar V Extant
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa V Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Zaltytis
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Audru polder
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Engure lake
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Sado estuary
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gruia
Iceland Osholmar Eyjafardarar
Iceland Austara Eylendid
Iceland Osasvædi Olfusar
Iceland Skumsstadavatn
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Ballyallia lake
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Inner Clonakilty Bay
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon)
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Belgium Vallei van de Zwarte Beek
Belgium Demervallei
Belgium Gebieden ten noorden van Turnhout en Ravels
Belgium Kalmthoutse Heide
Belgium De Maatjes, Wuustwezel Heide en Groot Schietveld
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden River Helge
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Janów forests
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Netherlands Workumerwaard
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Wormer- en Jisperveld & Kalverpolder
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Oostzanerveld
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Terkaplesterpoelen and Akmarijp
Netherlands Witte en Zwarte Brekken
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Dwingelderveld
Iceland Brúará
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Lake Fehér at Gátér
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Faustovo flood-plains of Moscow river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Orshinski marshes
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Kholevichami
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk
Russia (European) Shilovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Middle section of river Guadalquivir reservoirs
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Janubio saltpans
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Velyke marsh
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Goulven
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Etang de Lindre
France Marais de Brière
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Etang de Capestang
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etang de Thau
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Marais de Manteyer
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Bonne Anse
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Plaine du Forez
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Lewitz
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Milde lowlands/Altmark
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Ammersee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Terborg
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Old Picardie
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Dümmer
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Dalum Wietmarscher swamp
Germany Georgsdorfer swamp
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Jammertal
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Northern Wetterau
Germany Reichlos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Gambia Tanbi wetland complex
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Timisobo - Képagou
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
Chad Lake Chad
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Tanzania Singida lakes
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Carmel coast
Iraq Attariya Plains
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Haur Uwainah
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Vietnam Xuan Thuy
Vietnam Binh Dai
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Malaysia Matang coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay
Indonesia Sembilang
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Dongjin estuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Veeranam Lake
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Lelchitsy-Ubort
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Muraka
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy Sarykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Starinnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Akkul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krivoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Uryadki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Mangut Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Yarovskoe marsh
Russia (Central Asian) Sykandyk Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Maly Sarykul' Lake
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Lower Uvod' river
Russia (Central Asian) Shartymka valley
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Marsh southward of village Stepanovka near Okunevo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Maly Sungul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Mit'kino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of river Irtysh near village Atak
Russia (Central Asian) Kaburlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Pointe de Grave
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (Central Asian) Alakupa marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Akman lake
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (Central Asian) Ebeity lake
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (European) Rybachii Peninsula and Ushakovski bay
Russia (Central Asian) Altyr' lake
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Yudinsky stretch
Russia (Central Asian) Kurlady Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Pelymsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Katai lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iraq Haur Om am Nyaj
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Belarus Turaŭskaje balonnie
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Neusiedler See
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Ukraine Urochysche Mushevo
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Yemen Aden
Ukraine Vorskla river valley, near vv. Ivanivka-Kashans'ke, Kurikovka
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Chonta
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Russia (European) Taman'
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Asian) Islands of the Enisey river near Shushenskoye
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Netherlands Biesbosch
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Australia Gulf Plains
Belarus Arechaŭskaje
Netherlands Eilandspolder
Ireland Courtmacsherry, Broadstrand and Dunworley Complex
Ireland Seagrange Park
Ireland Baldoyle Bay
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Niger Diffa-Kinzindi grassland and wetlands
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Greece Lake Voulkaria
Russia (European) Pikhtovka fishponds
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Pinezhski meadow
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Russia (European) Ul'skoye bog
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Dollart
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wetterau
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Eiderstedt
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Kudensee
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Cahore marshes
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Lough Foyle
Belarus Liasnaja river
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Romania Belceşti reservoir
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei
Romania Iernut fishponds - Cipău
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior
Romania Lake Mostiştea
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
United Kingdom The Wash
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Poland Pilica River Valley
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Poland Nielisz Site
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Poland Peatbogs at Wieprz River
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Coastal mudflat of Tianjin
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Belarus Braslav lakes
Spain Santander Bay
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Iceland Alftafjordur
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
Tunisia Barrage Lebna
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Iraq Dalmaj Marsh
Norway Jæren
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Ballum og Husum Enge, Kamper strandenge
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Lõu bay
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Estonia Koigi
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Sneekermeergebied
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Alkmaardermeer
Netherlands Eempolders
Netherlands Polders Ronde Hoep & Groot-Mijdrecht
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Meelva bog
China (mainland) Laoting (Daqing He–Shi Jiu Tuo)
Belarus River valley of Dnieper: Berezina-Holmech
Belarus Pripiat
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Tanzania Yaida Chini
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
China (mainland) Luannan coast and saltworks
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
India Nikol-Samadhiyala-Malan Wetlands Complex
India Dhanauri wetland
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the Trois Marigots)
Senegal Lac de Guiers
Senegal Guembeul Avifaunal Reserve and St Louis lagoons
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Senegal Niayes (from Dakar to St Louis)
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Parc National de Basse Casamance
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Iceland Skardsfjördur
Belarus Balota Tapila
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Iceland Borgarfjördur-Myrar-Longufjorur
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Albania Velipoja

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas unset breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) unset non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluctuations Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Mustela nivalis_old Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Flight paths Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Limosa limosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2022.