NT
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c; A3b,c; A4b,c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 118,000,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 614,000-809,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The population is estimated to number 102,000-149,000 pairs in Europe (including 25,000 pairs in Iceland) (BirdLife International 2015); 25,000-100,000 in west-central Asia; 150,000 in central Asia and Siberia (Asian Waterbird Census unpublished data); 160,000 in the rest of Asia and Australia.

Trend justification: There is still some degree of uncertainty about the size and trend of some of the sub-populations. Nevertheless, the available information suggests that the global population has probably declined by between 14% and 33% at a mean rate of approximately 23% over the 25 years leading up to 2015. This estimate is derived from a series of calculations based on best-worse case scenarios using population estimates from Wetlands International (2017), and trend data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census, Asian Waterbird Census, Wetlands International, Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme and forum contributors. Thus the species's trend is currently best placed in the 20-29% band. In Europe, the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 25.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra U Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos U Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Madagascar V Extant
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa V Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Australia Gulf Plains
Belarus Arechaŭskaje
Belarus Braslav lakes
Belarus Lelchitsy-Ubort
Belarus Liasnaja river
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Turaŭskaje balonnie
Belgium Gebieden ten noorden van Turnhout en Ravels
Belgium Polderkomplex
Chad Lake Chad
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Coastal mudflat of Tianjin
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Camargue
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Gambia Tanbi wetland complex
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Iceland Austara Eylendid
Iceland Hólmarnir
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Veeranam Lake
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Indonesia Pesisir Pantai Jambi
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara
Indonesia Sembilang
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iraq Attariya Plains
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Haur Uwainah
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Inner Clonakilty Bay
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon)
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Israel Carmel coast
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Malaysia Matang coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Timisobo - Képagou
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Oostzanerveld (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Workumerwaard (superseded 24/5/2017)
Netherlands Wormer- en Jisperveld & Kalverpolder
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
Norway Jæren
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Tejo estuary
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Belceşti reservoir
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Iernut fishponds - Cipău
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Mostiştea
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Russia (European) Chonta
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Kholevichami
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Ul'skoye bog
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Santander Bay
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Tanzania Singida lakes
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Kneiss
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Vietnam Binh Dai
Vietnam Xuan Thuy

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas unset breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) unset non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluctuations Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species - Mustela nivalis_old Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Limosa limosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2017.