Black Stork Ciconia nigra


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 25,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 76,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.24,000-44,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.10,000 breeding pairs, < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.10,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 9,800-13,900 pairs, which equates to 19,500-27,800 mature individuals (Birdife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Amasia
Armenia Haghartsin
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Vienna forest
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Belarus Staraja Vic'
Belgium Croix-Scaille
Belgium Deux Ourthes
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland
China (mainland) Xiaruyue Reservoir
China (mainland) Yiwulü Shan Nature Reserve
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Croatia Spacva Basin
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Doupov hills
Czechia Jeseniky mountains
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Karula
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Forêt de Jugny
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
Georgia Iori Region
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Germany Baar
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Burgwald
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Egge
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Enz valley Mühlhausen - Roßwag
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Farmlands Prignitz with Stepenitz valley (BB) and eastern Grabow (MV)
Germany Federseeried
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Forests between Wittlich and Cochem
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Hessian Rothaar mountains
Germany Hildesheim forest
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Knüll
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Landgraben-Dumme lowlands
Germany Lower Gersprenz lowlands incl. Reinheim pond
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Mittelsiegbergland
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Oberwesterwald, incl. Westerwald lake area and Neunkhausener Plateau
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Sachsenwald
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Schneifel
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Solling
Germany Spessart
Germany Spreewald
Germany Stechlin
Germany Stromberg
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wahner Heide
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Inner Somogy
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Western Negev
Israel Zevulun valley
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
Latvia Vecumi
Latvia Zvarde forest
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lesotho Upper Senqu River
Lithuania Birzai forest
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Lithuania Dotnuva-Josvainiai forest complex
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex
Lithuania Labunava forest
Lithuania Lanciunava forest
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Lithuania Vainutas, Begedziai, Zasyciai & neighbouring forests complex
Lithuania Zalioji & Gitenai forests complex
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Myitkyina-Nandebad-Talawagyi
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia River Raec valley
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Insko Site
Poland Janów forests
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Roztocze
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Stolowe Mountains
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Estrela Mountains
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Suhaia
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina
Russia (Asian) Urul'guveem hollow
Russia (Central Asian) Middle reaches of the Chulym river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Berd' river
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Kletnyanski forest
Russia (European) Krasniy Les area
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (European) Valley of Terek river, Kabardino-Balkaria
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Obedska bara
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Rocky faces of Posavsko hribovje
South Africa Kruger National Park and adjacent areas
South Africa Magaliesberg
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Ceuta
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain El Rebollar
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain La Serena
Spain Las Contiendas mountain range
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Low Tietar river and La Vera valley
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Peña de Francia
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain West Andévalo
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey İğneada Forests
Turkey Kirmir Valley
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Turkey Uludağ
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Ushomyrs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Uzh river valley
Zambia Mosi-Oa-Tunya National Park and Batoka Gorge
Zimbabwe Sebakwe Poort

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ciconia nigra. Downloaded from on 21/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/01/2020.