Black Stilt Himantopus novaezelandiae


BRaid. 2017. Kaki / Black Stilt Recovery Programme. Available at: (Accessed: 30th May 2018).

Cruz, J., Pech, R.P., Seddon, P.J., Cleland, S., Nelson, D., Sanders, M.D. and Maloney, R.F. 2013. Species-specific responses by ground-nesting Charadriiformes to invasive predators and river flows in the braided Tasman River of New Zealand. Biological Conservation 167: 363-370.

Department of Conservation. n.d.. Black stilt/kaki. Available at: (Accessed: 30th May 2018).

Forsdick, N. 2017. Genetics of Australasian stilts. Birds New Zealand 16: 5.

Galbraith, J. A.; Sancha, S. E.; Maloney, R. F.; Hauber, M. E. 2007. Alarm responses are maintained during captive rearing in chicks of endangered Kaki. Animal Conservation 10(1): 103-109.

Hagen, E. N.; Hale, M. L.; Maloney, R. F.; Steevs, T. E. 2011. Conservation genetic management of a Critically Endangered New Zealand endemic bird: minimizing inbreeding in the Black Stilt Himantopus novaezelandiaeIbis 153: 556-561.

Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 2015. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

Keedwell, R. 2005. Black Stilt (Kaki) recovery effort. Wingspan 15: 15.

Keedwell, R. J.; Maloney, R. F.; Murray, D. P. 2002. Predator control for protecting kaki (Himantopus novaezelandiae) - lessons from 20 years of management. Biological Conservation 105: 369-374.

Maloney, R.F.; Murray, D. 2001. Kaki (black stilt) recovery plan 2001-2011. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Murray, D. P.; Sanders, M. D. 2000. Assessment of Chatham island as a location for liberation of Black Stilts.

O’Donnell, C.F.J., Sanders, M., Woolmore, C. and Maloney, R.F. 2016. Management and research priorities for conserving biodiversity on New Zealand’s braided rivers. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Pierce, R. 1986. Black Stilt. John McIndoe, Dunedin.

Pierce, R. J. 1984. The changed distribution of stilts in New Zealand. Notornis 31: 7-18.

Pierce, R. J. 1986. Differences in susceptibility to predation during nesting between Pied and Black Stilts Himantopus spp. The Auk 103: 273-280.

Pierce, R.J., Boesman, P. and Sharpe, C.J. 2015. Black Stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Reed, C. E. M.; Murray, D. P.; Butler, D. J. 1993. Black Stilt recovery plan (Himantopus novaezealandiae). Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Robertson, H. A., Baird, K., Dowding, J. E., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., Miskelly, C. M., McArthur, N., O’Donnell, C. F. J., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P. and Taylor, G. A. 2016. Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2016. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 19. Department of Conservation.

Sanders, M.D.; Maloney, R.F. 2002. Causes of mortality at nests of ground-nesting birds in the Upper Waitaki Basin, South Island, New Zealand: a 5-year video study. Biological Conservation 106(2): 225-236.

Steeves, T. E.; Maloney, R. F.; Hale, M. L.; Tylianakis, J. M.; Gemmell, N. J. 2010. Genetic analyses reveal hybridization but no hybrid swarm in one of the world’s rarest birds. Molecular Ecology 19(23): 5090-5100.

van Heezik, Y.; Maloney, R. F.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Movement of translocated captive-bred and released Critically Endangerd Kaki (Black Stilts) Himantopus novaezelandiae and the value of long-term post-release monitoring. Oryx 43(4): 639-647.

Further resources

New Zealand Govt - Dept of Conservation - Recovery Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Himantopus novaezelandiae. Downloaded from on 27/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/06/2022.