CR
Black Stilt Himantopus novaezelandiae



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
D B1ab(iii); D B1ab(iii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered D
2015 Critically Endangered D
2013 Critically Endangered D
2012 Critically Endangered D
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 195 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,300 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 89,800 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 38-50 good observed 2016
Population trend Increasing good observed -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The estimate of 93 adults in the wild including 19 productive and 6 non-productive breeding pairs as at February 2016.  Adult age is obtained at 2 years, but some birds are not recorded breeding until age 3, so the adult wild population is made up of 38-50 breeding birds and another 40-50 birds aged 2-3 years who may be capable of breeding, but did not breed in their first season.

Trend justification: The number of productive breeding pairs roughly doubled during 1995-2005, to 17 breeding pairs in the wild, with a further increase to 20 productive pairs in 2007-2008, but these figures conceal a fair amount of fluctuation. Furthermore, the apparent increase is largely thanks to the annual release of captive-bred subadults and juveniles (93 birds in 2007-2008; R. Maloney in litt. 2008).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Upper Waitaki Valley
New Zealand Ahuriri River
New Zealand Ashley River Rakahuri
New Zealand Godley Cass Rivers
New Zealand Hopkins Dobson Rivers
New Zealand Tasman River
New Zealand Te Waihora
New Zealand Pegasus Bay Coast
New Zealand Mangawhai
New Zealand Ohau Pukaki Tekapo Rivers

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cytisus scoparius Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Erinaceus europaeus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela furo Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Salix fragilis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Himantopus himantopus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Himantopus novaezelandiae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2022.