Black Solitary Eagle Buteogallus solitarius


Taxonomic note
Buteogallus solitarius (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Harpyhaliaetus.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened C1+2a(i)
2012 Near Threatened C1+2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened C1; C2a(i)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.7 - - -

Population justification: There are no population density figures and rigorous national or global population estimates are lacking. Consequently, the global population has not been determined with precision. Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) stated that the population was most unlikely to exceed three figures, however even though the species occurs at low densities it has an extremely large range and this estimate seems implausibly low. The population is therefore preliminarily estimated to lie in the range 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. This equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals. The population in Colombia is estimated to number c.50 mature individuals (Renjifo et al. 2014) whilst the population in Venezuela was estimated to be 300-500 mature individuals and declining in 2015 (Sharpe and Lentino 2015).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline throughout its range (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2016) owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable hunting.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Possibly Extinct Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Valle de San Salvador
Colombia Cuchilla de San Lorenzo
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona
Colombia Eco-parque Los Besotes
Colombia Munchique Natural National Park and southern extension
Colombia Cerro Pintado (Serranía de Perijá)
Colombia Reserva El Oso
Argentina Acambuco
Argentina Itiyuro-Tuyunti
Argentina Parque Nacional Baritú
Argentina Parque Nacional El Rey
Argentina Cuesta del Obispo
Argentina Río Seco
Argentina Parque Nacional Calilegua
Argentina Cuesta de las Higuerillas
Belize Rio Bravo CMA Gallon Jug Estate
Belize Maya Mountains and southern reserves
Colombia Jardín de las Delicias
Honduras Rio Platano
Honduras Celaque
Honduras Cerro Azul Meambar
Honduras Montaña de Yoro
Honduras Sierra de Agalta
Honduras La Muralla and surrounding area
Bolivia Serranía de Aguarague
Argentina Yuto y Vinalito
Peru Manu
Ecuador Manteles - El Triunfo - Sucre
Mexico Parque Natural Sierra de Nanchititla
Mexico Sierra del Burro
Mexico Sierra de Tabasco

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 400 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Buteogallus solitarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/07/2022.