NT
Black Scoter Melanitta americana



References

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Bordage, D. and Savard, J. L. 2011. Black Scoter (Melanitta americana), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Ithaca, NY Available at: https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.177. (Accessed: 16.08.18).

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. 2017. Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Collinson, M.; Parkin, D. T.; Knox, A. G.; Sangster, G.; Helbig, A.J. 2006. Species limits within the genus Melanitta, the scoters. British Birds 99: 183-201.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (ed.). 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Drever, M. C., Clarck, R. G., Derksen, C., Slattery, S. M., Toose, P. & Nudds, T. D. 2011. Population vulnerability to climate change linked to timing of breeding in boreal ducks. Global Change biology 18(2): 480-492.

Flint, V.E., Boehme, R.L., Kostin, Y.V. and Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Gorski, W., Jakuczun, B., Nitecki, C. & Petryna, A. 1977. Investigation of oil pollution on the Polish Baltic coast in 1974-1975. Przeglad Zoologiczny 21(1): 20-23.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Larsen, J. K.; Laubek, B. 2005. Disturbance effects of high-speed ferries on wintering sea ducks. Wildfowl 55: 99-116.

Madge, S. and Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Melville, D.S. and Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith & D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nikolaeva, N.G., Spiridonov, V.A. and Krasnov, Y.V. 2006. Existing and proposed marine protected areas and their relevance for seabird conservation: a case study in the Barents Sea region. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 743-749. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Partners in Flight. 2019. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2019. Available at: http://pif.birdconservancy.org/ACAD.

Plumpton, H. 2018. Black Scoter (Melanitta americana) Winter Habitat Use and Movement Patterns Along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Forestry and Environmental Conservation, Clemson University.

Ramírez-Garofalo, J. R. 2020. Occurrence and implications of staging Black Scoters Melanitta americana in a heavily trafficked urban estuary. Marine Ornithology 48: 27-32.

Rosenberg, K. V.; Dokter, A. M.; Blancher, P. J.; Sauer, J. R.; Smith, A. C.; Smith, P. A.; Stanton, J. C.; Panjabi, A.; Helft, L.; Parr, M.; Marra, P. P. 2019. Decline of the North American avifauna. Science 366(6461): 120-124.

Scott, D.A. and Rose, P.M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Sea Duck Joint Venture. 2003. Species status report.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Steinacher M., Joos, F., Frolicher, T. L., Plattner, G. K., & Doney, S. C. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6: 515-533.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

IUCN SSC Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Melanitta americana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022.