Black Scoter Melanitta americana


Bordage, D. and Savard, J. L. 2011. Black Scoter (Melanitta americana), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Ithaca, NY Available at: https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.177. (Accessed: 16.08.18).

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. 2017. Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Collinson, M.; Parkin, D. T.; Knox, A. G.; Sangster, G.; Helbig, A.J. 2006. Species limits within the genus Melanitta, the scoters. British Birds 99: 183-201.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Drever, M.C., Clarck, R.G., Derksen, C., Slattery, S.M., Toose, P., Nudds, T.D. 2011. Population vulnerability to climate change linked to timing of breeding in boreal ducks. Global Change biology 18(2): 480-492.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Gorski, W.; Jakuczun, B.; Nitecki, C.; Petryna, A. 1977. Investigation of oil pollution on the Polish Baltic coast in 1974-1975. Przeglad Zoologiczny 21(1): 20-23.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Larsen, J. K.; Laubek, B. 2005. Disturbance effects of high-speed ferries on wintering sea ducks. Wildfowl 55: 99-116.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nikolaeva, N.G.; Spiridonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Y.V. 2006. Existing and proposed marine protected areas and their relevance for seabird conservation: a case study in the Barents Sea region. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 743-749. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Scott, D. A.; Rose, P. M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Sea Duck Joint Venture. 2003. Species status report.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Steinacher M. , Joos, F., Frolicher, T.L., Plattner, G.K., Doney, S.C. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6(515-533).

Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

IUCN SSC Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Melanitta americana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020.