VU
Black Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2010 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 54,300,000 poor
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 70 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5500 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Stable medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 34 - - -

Population justification:

There are c.880 pairs in the 35-ha study site of Great Barrier Island and 620 pairs in Little Barried Island (E. A. Bell et al. 2016a,b). A recent assessment of the whole population derived from band recoveries from fisheries bycatch estimates 2750 breeding pairs and 11,000 individuals (Richard and Abraham 2015).

Trend justification:

The trend obtained from census grid data for Great Barrier Island estimated a population growth rate between -2.3% and 2.5% per year, depending on juvenile annual survival. Assuming a juvenile annual survival rate of 88%, the population growth rate was estimated to be -1.1% per year (Bell et al. 2014).Nevertheless, there is considerable uncertainty in the model and further research is needed to clarify the population trend.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador U Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guatemala V Extant Yes
Kiribati U Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Tonga N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Guatemala Pacific Pelagic Waters off Guatemala
New Zealand Hirakimata Kotuku Peninsula
New Zealand Te Hauturu-o-Toi Little Barrier Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 726 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Rattus exulans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Procellaria parkinsoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/10/2017.