VU
Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2009 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,790,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 632,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6600-6800 medium estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at c.10,000-10,200 individuals in total (Li et al 2014), roughly equivalent to c.6,600-6,800 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species's population is presumed to have decreased in line with levels of grassland degradation (owing to intensive grazing and pesticide use) and drying up of marshes (due to increased extraction and desertification), and changing agricultural techniques that have reduced the availability of grain in cultivated areas. Recent increases appear to be genuine, but may possibly be a result of more thorough surveys and perhaps an increased concentration of birds at fewer sites.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bhutan N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Nepal V Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bhutan Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary
Bhutan Bumthang wetlands
Bhutan Phopjika and Khatekha valleys
China (mainland) Aksayqin Hu and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Aqqik Kol and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Area between Qinghai Hu and A'nyêmaqên
China (mainland) Ayark Kol and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Bangong Co
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changshagongma Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
China (mainland) Damxung
China (mainland) Dashanbao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Ganligahai-Zecha Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Haizishan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heishuihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Henghe Liangzi
China (mainland) Huang He Shouqu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huize Black-necked Crane Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jingyu Hu
China (mainland) Karze Reservoir
China (mainland) Kasha Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Labahe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lashi Hai
China (mainland) Lugu Hu
China (mainland) Mamize Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nagpag Co (Napa Hai) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nam Co
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor)
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Siling Co Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wulianfeng
China (mainland) Xiaohegou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yamdrok Co
China (mainland) Yarlong Zangpo Middle Reaches Black-necked Crane Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yongshan Maolin
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park)
India Chushul marshes
India Hanle Plains (Hanle River marshes)
India Lhonak Valley
India Pangong Tso
India Sangti Valley
India Tso Kar Basin
India Tso Lhamo Plateau - Lashar - Sebu La - Yumesamdong Complex
India Tso Morari Lake and adjacent marshes
India Zemithang - Nelya

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 2100 - 4900 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 1375 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Grus nigricollis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017.