LC
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 106 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 61,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 74,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, though national population estimates include c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China, c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) U Extant
Comoros N Extant
Cook Islands N Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Japan N Extant
Kenya U Extant
Kiribati N Extant Yes
Madagascar V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mozambique U Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nauru U Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Samoa N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia U Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania U Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extant Yes
Tuvalu N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
Vanuatu N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Seychelles African Banks
Seychelles Farquhar - South Island and islets
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Palau Helen Island, Hatohobei
Taiwan, China Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge
Taiwan, China Northeastern Sea Islets
Malaysia Talang-Satang National Park
Japan Yaeyama islands
Japan Okinawa coastal islets
Taiwan, China Kaomei Wetlands
Palau Ngeriungs, Palau
Marshall Islands Enewetok Atoll
Fiji Namenalala
American Samoa Swain's Atoll
China (mainland) Wuchishan Dao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhongjieshan Islands
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yushan Islands
China (mainland) Taizhou Islands
China (mainland) Dongtou Islands
China (mainland) Beiji Islands
China (mainland) Nanji Islands Nature Reserve
Fiji Vatu-i-Ra
Seychelles Islets of Farquhar atoll - Marine
Seychelles Aldabra atoll / Cosmoledo atoll - Marine
Seychelles African Banks / Boudeuse island / Etoile island / Marie Louise island - Marine
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay / Talang-Satang National Park - Marine
Taiwan, China Cat Islet Seabird Refuge, Penghu County Refuge / Northern Sea Islets / Northeastern Sea Islets / Southern Sea Islets - Marine
China (mainland) Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge - Marine
Japan Yaeyama islands - Marine
Japan Okinawa coastal islets - Marine
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve - Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Wolouna, Ahnd Atoll
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll
Marshall Islands Bikar Atoll
Marshall Islands Taka Atoll
Fiji Vanua Masi Islet
Fiji Nukubasaga & Nukupureti
Fiji Qelelevu Islands
Papua New Guinea Southern New Ireland Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux
New Caledonia (to France) Îles des récifs Bampton et Chesterfield
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots de Poindimié
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du lagon sud
New Caledonia (to France) District de Wetr à Lifou
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Atafu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Nukunonu
Solomon Islands Kolombangara Upland Forest
Solomon Islands Gizo
Solomon Islands East Rennell
Papua New Guinea Tench Island
Philippines Apo Reef Marine Natural Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sterna sumatrana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2020.