CR
Black-naped Pheasant-pigeon Otidiphaps insularis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Otidiphaps nobilis, O. aruensis, O. cervicalis and O. insularis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as O. nobilis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) C2a(i,ii); D C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2014 Endangered C2a(ii)
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,700 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,604
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor estimated 2021
Population trend decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 5-24 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 5-24 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.78 - - -

Population justification:

There is no estimate of the population density of any Otidiphaps sp., but a handful of calling O. nobilis have been heard calling per square kilometre in suitable hill forest at Varirata National Park (G. Dutson pers. comm. 2016). An analysis of satellite forest cover data suggested that there was 1,140 km2 of forest in the range of O. insularis in 2021 (Global Forest Watch 2021). Based on this information, the maximum population size may be estimated to number up to several thousand mature individuals. However, there have been no recent sightings of the species despite recent visits from researchers and birdwatchers (Gregg et al. 2020, J. Bergmark in litt. 2021), and surveys of the Kilkerran Massif in 2019 failed to record the species (Gregg et al. 2020), which suggests that the population size may now be extremely small. Nevertheless, local people have recently reported hunting the species and finding an active nest (Gregg et al. 2020), which suggests that the species persists in low numbers. The population size is therefore estimated to be smaller than 250 mature individuals, and is here placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals.

Given the species's small range with contiguous habitat, there is assumed to be a single subpopulation.



Trend justification: The species is inferred to be undergoing a slow decline owing to the loss of its forest habitat, which is subject to pressure for logging and conversion for subsistence agriculture. An analysis of satellite forest cover data indicated that forest was being lost in the species's range at a rate equivalent to 10% over three generations over the period of 2001-2019, with significantly higher rates seen since 2014 (Global Forest Watch 2021). Extrapolating into the future, it is suspected that 10-19% of tree cover may be lost over the next three generations. Hunting is also likely to be contributing to declines. The species's population size is therefore suspected to have undergone a reduction of 5-15% over the past three generations, and to undergo a reduction of 5-24% over the next three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Papua New Guinea extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 2050 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus exulans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus scrofa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Otidiphaps insularis. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/black-naped-pheasant-pigeon-otidiphaps-insularis on 08/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 08/06/2023.