Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
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Anker-Nilssen, T., Barrett, R.T., Bustnes, J.O., Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Erikstad, K.E., Fauchald, P., Lorentsen, S.-H., Steen, H., Strøm, H., Systad, G.H. and Tveraa, T. 2008. SEAPOP studies in the Barents and Norwegian Seas in 2007. In: NINA Rapport 363 (ed.).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Bradbury, G., Trinder, M., Furness, B., Banks, A.N., Caldow, R.W.G. and Hume, D. 2014. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms. PLoS ONE 9(9): e106366.

Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Kirwan, G.M., Christie, D.A. and Garcia, E.F.J. 2016. Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Frederiksen, M.; Wanless, S.; Harris, M. P.; Rothery, P.; Wilson, L. J. 2004. The role of industrial fisheries and oceanographic change in the decline of North Sea black-legged kittiwakes. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 1129-1139.

Garðarsson, A. 2006. Nýlegar breytingar á fjölda íslenskra bjargfugla. Bliki 27: 13-22.

Labansen, A.L., Merkel, F., Boertmann, D. and Nyeland, J. 2010. Status of the Black-Legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) Breeding Population in Greenland, 2008. Polar Research 29(3): 391-403.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nikolaeva, N.G.; Spiridonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Y.V. 2006. Existing and proposed marine protected areas and their relevance for seabird conservation: a case study in the Barents Sea region. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 743-749. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2004. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

OSPAR. 2010. Background Document for Black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla tridactyla. Available at:

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Thorup, S.H., Jensen, J-K., Petersen, K.T. and Kasper, D.B. 2014. Færøsk Trækfugleatlas. The Faroese Bird Migration Atlas. Faroe University Press, Tórshavn.

Wetlands International. 2016. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at:

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

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Media resources
Arkive species - Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Rissa tridactyla. Downloaded from on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/10/2017.