Black Kite Milvus migrans


Barbazyuk, E.V., Myachina, K.V., Ryakhov, R.V. and Dubrovskaya, S.A. 2021. An assessment of the potential effect of oil-and-gas 6–10 kV overhead power lines on bird mortality in the western Orenburg Region steppe. Earth and Environmental Science 817: 012012.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Carneiro, M., Oliveira, P., Brandão, R., Soeiro, V., Pires, M.J., Lavin, S. and Colaço, B. 2018. Assessment of the exposure to heavy metals and arsenic in captive and free-living black kites (Milvus migrans) nesting in Portugal. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 160: 191-196.

David, T. S.; Orta, J.; Marks, J. S.; Garcia, E. F. J.; Kirwan, G. M. 2021. Black Kite (Milvus migrans), version 1.1. Ithaca, NY, USA Available at:

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds). 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Derlink, M., Wernham, C., Bertoncelj, I., Kovács, A., Saurola, P., Duke, G., Movalli, P. and Vrezec, A. 2018. A review of raptor and owl monitoring activity across Europe: its implications for capacity building towards pan-European monitoring. Bird Study 65: S4-S20.

Dixon, A., Maming, R., Gunga, A., Purev-Ochir, G. and Batbayar, N. 2013. The problem of raptor electrocution in Asia: case studies from Mongolia and China. Bird Conservation International 23(4): 520-529.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

Forsman, D. 2016. Flight identification of raptors of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Christopher Helm, London.

Global Raptors Information Network. 2015. Species account: Black Kite Milvus migrans. Available at: (Accessed: 02/07/2015).

Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2020. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 5. Available at:

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

State of India's Birds. 2020. State of India’s Birds factsheet: Black Kite Milvus migrans. Available at:

STRIX. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Milvus migrans. Downloaded from on 03/10/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/10/2023.