Black Kite Milvus migrans


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 206,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 193,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000000-2499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 81,200-109,000 breeding pairs, equating to 162,000-218,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 11% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,470,000-1,980,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 1,000,000-2,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Despite being possibly the most common raptor in the world, the population has declined owing to poisoning, shooting, pollution of water and over-use of pesticides. Modernisation of urban environments and agricultural improvements are also thought to be causing declines locally (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In Europe the current population trend direction is unknown (BirdLife International 2015). Outside Europe the overall trend is unclear, with some countries (e.g. Australia) reporting increases and others decreases (e.g. Zambia) (Global Raptors Information Network 2015). However Thiollay (2007) detected a significant decline in West Africa of approximately 70% outside protected areas between 1969-1973 and 2000-2004.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Obedska bara
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
Georgia Pskhu
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Akstafa-chai valley
Azerbaijan Astara-chai valley
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Girkan forest
Azerbaijan Ilisu area
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Samur Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Azerbaijan Vilajchai valley
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Malta Comino island
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Pape
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Uzava meadows
Latvia Zvarde forest
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Paul de Arzila
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Côa valley
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Fundata
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Haute Meuse
Belgium Marche en Famenne
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Belgium Malchamps
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Vallée de la Lienne
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Sinémurienne
Belgium Côte Bajocienne
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Insko Site
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Janów forests
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Oswin site
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Greece Evros delta
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Elimyssalo
Hungary Börzsöny
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Ribadesella-Tina Mayor
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Segovia
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Zuera mountains
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Middle section of river Guadalquivir reservoirs
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain River Moros
Spain River Pisuerga at Dueñas
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Ceuta
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Low Tietar river and La Vera valley
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Bakhtyn river valley
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Montagne de la Serre
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Plateau Ardennais
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Bassigny
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne Sud
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Brenne: Forêt de Lancosme
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Etang de Biguglia
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etang des Landes
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Montagne de la Clape
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Minervois
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Vallée de la Garonne : Boussens à Carbonne
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Cap Gris-nez
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Crau
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Plaine des Maures
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Bois du Chapitre
France Bec de Crigne
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Forêt du Gavre
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Forêt de Saou
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Basse Ardêche
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Montagne des Frêtes et plateau des Glières
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Italy Lake Candia
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Grigne
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Italy Iseo peatlands
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy River Cecina middle valley
Italy Farma valley
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Rieti lakes
Italy Vico lake
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy River Biferno
Italy Matese
Italy Picentini mountains
Italy Gravine
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Pollino
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Italy Peloritani mountains
Italy Ticino river
Italy Sicani mountains
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Manferrara forest
Italy Lake Bolsena
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy River Sesia heronries
Italy Assa valley
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Italy Campo dei Fiori, Valganna and Cuvia valley
Italy Mount Pecoraro and Pizzo Cirina
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Lake Viverone
Italy River Sele middle valley
Italy Lake Maggiore
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Serbia Derdap gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Poland Barycz river valley
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Switzerland Bolle di Magadino
Switzerland Mont Tendre
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Switzerland Generoso mountain
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Gimbsheim-Eicher Altrhein und Fischsee
Germany Hördter Rheinaue
Germany Rhine flats Altlußheim-Mannheim
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Federseeried
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Charlottenhofer Weihergebiet and Hirtlohweiher
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Ammersee
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Lewitz
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Serrahn
Germany Southern Tollense basin
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Hakel
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Landgraben-Dumme lowlands
Germany Milde lowlands/Altmark
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Ploetzkau flood-plain forest
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Stechlin
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Heerter See
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Waldeck upland
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Silzenwiesen and Bruch near Stettfeld
Germany Schwarza and Schlücht valleys
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Germany Enz valley Mühlhausen - Roßwag
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Orchards, heathlands and forests around Weil der Stadt
Germany Wutach ravine
Germany Stromberg
Germany Woodlands of Western Pomerania, northern range
Croatia Turopolje
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Alluvial forests from Podravska Slatina to Vuka
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Jordan Dana
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Klietzer Heide
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Mouth of river Schwarze Elster
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Farmlands Prignitz with Stepenitz valley (BB) and eastern Grabow (MV)
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Wetterau
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Werra lowlands near Wanfried and Eschwege
Germany Lower Gersprenz lowlands incl. Reinheim pond
Germany Untermain
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, northern oxbow
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, southern oxbow
Germany Neuhofener Altrhein with Prinz Karl - Wörth
Germany Otterstadter and Angelhofer Altrhein incl. Binsfeld
Germany Berghausener and Lingenfelder Altrhein incl. Flotzgrün island
Germany Goldgrund and Daxlander Au
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Rhine flats between mouth of Rench and mouth of Murg
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Elzniederung between Kenzingen and Rust
Germany Mooswälder near Freiburg
Germany Gottswald
Germany Korker Wald
Germany Drumlinlandschaft near Überlingen with Salemer Klosterweihern
Germany Baar
Germany Mittlerer Rammert
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Danube valley Scheer-Zwiefaltendorf
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Ingerkinger Moore and adjoining forests
Germany Pfrunger and Burgweiler Ried
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Spessart
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Northern Danube valley and southern Riesalb
Poland Pasleka river valley
Belarus L'va floodplain
Belarus Vydryca
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Italy Tevere valley
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of river Irtysh near village Atak
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya
Russia (Central Asian) Karazjukski complex of marshes and lakes
Latvia Razna
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Portugal Arraiolos
Armenia Sardarapat
Armenia Tashir
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Ichalkovski forest
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Slovenia Črete
St Lucia Pitons (Qualibou and Canaries)
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Lebanon Taanayel Pond
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Shakinski oak forest
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Poland Por River Valley
Poland Dobskie Lake
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Szyszla River Valley
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Stolowe Mountains
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Lithuania Asveja Regional Park
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Slovakia Pusté Úľany - Zeleneč
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Ratsynska Dacha Zakaznik
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Pollino and Orsomarso
Romania Lunca Turului Inferior
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Côte d'Ivoire Monogaga Classified Forest
Russia (European) Tul'skiye Zaseki forest
Russia (European) Zalazniki, Beli, Urino and Leskovo area
Russia (European) Schuch'i Gori area
Russia (European) Sources of Alimbet river and Aktykyl ridge
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ural and Kindeli rivers
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Klyazminsko-Balakhninskaya lowland
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Klyaz'ma river from mouth of Teza river up to Mstera
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Luxembourg Region of Schuttrange, Canach, Lenningen and Gostingen
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Hungary Szigetköz
Belarus Braslav lakes
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Grazute Regional Park (part of)
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Warmia Site
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Pszczew Lakes and Obra River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Mircze Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Moldova Costești – Stânca Lake
Moldova Royal Forest
Moldova Dniester River between Naslavcea - Soroca
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Egypt El Qa plain
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Jordan Petra
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho
Syria Euphrates valley
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Jegricka
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Serbia Gornje Potisje

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4900 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5300 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Milvus migrans. Downloaded from on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/12/2020.