NT
Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 medium estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number up to 10,000 individuals in south Asia, plus up to another 10,000 in south-east Asia and up to 100 in east Asia (Q. Wang in litt. 2002). This is likely to total fewer than 20,000 mature individuals, and so the population is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline owing to hunting, egg collecting, disturbance at breeding colonies, drainage and agricultural conversion. The area of mangrove habitat in Myanmar has declined (C. Zöckler in litt. 2016). A population decline is precautionarily retained here however in some areas the species is increasing with the species increasingly using man-made wetlands (G. Sundar in litt. 2016). New information on the global population trend is required to confirm the trend direction.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Laos V Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant
Russia (Asian) N Extant
South Korea V Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Prek Toal
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
India Bhashkarpara
India Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Karanji Tank
India Narasambudhi Lake
India Odiyur Lagoon
India Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary
Indonesia Pesisir Riau Tenggara
Indonesia Pulau Dua
Indonesia Sembilang
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Sri Lanka Giants Tank
Sri Lanka Yala
Vietnam Bac Lieu
Vietnam Tra Cu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Threskiornis melanocephalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2019.