Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 44,500,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 123,000,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population has been estimated to number c.4,800,000-8,900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 1,340,000-1,990,000 pairs, which equates to 2,670,000-3,980,000 mature individuals or 4,000,000-5,970,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Combining the new figures for the European population (BirdLife International 2015) with estimates from the other populations in Wetlands International (2015) provides an overall estimate of 4,400,000-8,200,000 individuals. National population estimates include: > c.1,000 individuals on migration and > c.1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and > c.1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and > c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unclear. Some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (361% increase over 40 years, equating to a 46.6% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. Between 1990 and 2013 the European population is estimated to have declined moderately (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea V Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Monaco U Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Islauzas fish-ponds
Estonia Kihnu strait
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Pape lake
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Iceland Svarfadardalur
Iceland Skerjafjordur
Ireland Cross Lough (Killadoon)
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Carrowmore Lake
Ireland Greer's Island (Massmount), Mulroy Bay
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Tysslingen
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slup reservoir
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Hungary Lake Balaton
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Danube reach between Gönyû and Szob
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Danilovskoe marshes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Ribadesella-Tina Mayor
Spain Alborán island
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Ceuta
Spain Sariñena lake and La Estación pond
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kytaj lake
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Vovk river valley
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Forêts du Perche
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Col de l'Escrinet
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor
United Kingdom Tolsta Head, Lewis
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Po Delta
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Poland Slowinska Site
Czechia Rezabinec pond
Czechia Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Czechia Poodri
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Madum Sø
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Carska bara
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia SÍňava
Slovakia Zemplínska Šírava
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Runde
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Turkey Gediz Delta
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Ammersee
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Alfsee
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Georgsdorfer swamp
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Federseeried
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Norway Lake Vansjø
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Egypt Lake Manzala
Turkey Bosphorus
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Carmel coast
Iraq Shatt Al Arab marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr Shinas and Khawr Liwa
Oman Al Batinah coast
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Dian Chi Nature Reserve
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Pakistan Outer Indus delta
Russia (Asian) Avacha bay (Khlamovitskiy Wildlife Reserve)
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Vooremaa
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tarutino
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Lake system near Lotoshnoye village
Russia (Central Asian) Myrkaj Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tishki Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Karataban Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Alekaj Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Otnoga Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater Shantarkai Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Achlikul' Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe, Krivoe and Zhuravlinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Sugoyak Lake
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Golia Island
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Baie de Vilaine
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang des Landes
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Pointe de Grave
France Basse vallée du Var
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Marshes near villages Frolishchi and Chistoye
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Novotroitskoye village
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (Central Asian) Bakanzhul lake
Russia (European) Oka valley in vicinity of Murmino
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Surskoi spur of Cheboksarskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Canada Quoddy Region
Canada Quidi Vidi Lake
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Île Nue de Mingan
Canada Île a Calculot
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Mongolia Taigam Lake
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Oman Musandam islands
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Lake Vendel
Sweden Lake Lim
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk Lake
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Mergen
Italy Lake Viverone
Russia (European) Shalimovskoye bog
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Uzbekistan Khorezm Fish Farm and adjacent lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Nuuksio
Germany Vogelsberg
Russia (European) Ptich'ya magistral' area
Russia (European) Tishskaya Dal' area
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caño Tiburones
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Dümmer
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Untermain
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Lough Carra
Ireland Lough Corrib
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Black Sea
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni
Romania Suhaia
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Turek Site
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Furesø and Farum Sø
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Qiemo Oasis and Qarqan River
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis
China (mainland) Hotan Oasis
Slovenia Črete
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Egypt Lake Idku
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Denmark Lillebælt
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Russia (Asian) Avachinskaya Bay and Starichkov Island
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Meelva bog
Estonia Misso
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Muddus
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Ushkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Serbia Carska Bara
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Albania Lake Megali Prespa
Albania Vlora Bay, Karaburun Peninsula and Cika mountain
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Albania Velipoja
Taiwan, China Budai Wetlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Larus ridibundus. Downloaded from on 28/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/03/2023.