LC
Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 378.0 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 44,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 42,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 400000-1499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.9 - - -

Population justification: The European population alone was recently estimated at 304,000-742,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.50-74% of the global range; thus, a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 410,000-1,484,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore roughly placed in the band 400,000-1,499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unclear. In North America, the population is increasing (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe, the population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 32.7 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belgium V Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Croatia V Extant
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Brandypot Islands
Canada Digges Sound
Canada Île aux Basques et Les Razades
Canada Île Blanche
Canada La Malbaie–Pointe-au-Pic
Canada North Kent Island
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Péninsule de Forillon
Canada Prince Leopold Island
Canada Skruis Point
Denmark Hirsholmene
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Ronne Banke
Denmark Rønne Banke
Estonia Irbe strait
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Bordoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Hestur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kalsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Koltur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kunoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Stóra Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Svínoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vidoy
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Mulklobb
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Greenland (to Denmark) Islands and waters south and west of Upernavik town
Iceland Aedey
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Clare Island cliffs
Ireland Duvillaun Islands
Ireland Howth Head
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland Rockabill
Latvia Irbe strait
Norway Anda
Norway Froan
Norway Sklinna
Poland Central Polish coastal waters
Poland Pomeranian bay
Poland Slupsk bank
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Wrangel and Herald Islands
Russia (European) Bezymyannaya and Gribovaya Bays and adjoining waters
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Hopen island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Kvalhovden & Sjukovskifjella
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Bank of Hoburg
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Bonden Island
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Northern Midsjö Bank
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Southern Midsjö Bank
Sweden Weather Islands
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cepphus grylle. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/03/2019.