Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix


Taxonomic note
Lyrurus tetrix (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Tetrao.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 25,600,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8000000-14000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,220,000-2,040,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 2,450,000-4,080,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 8,166,666-13,600,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 8,000,000-14,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population has suffered major declines and range contractions over much of its range owing to afforestation of heathland, increased cultivation, and planting of coniferous monocultures. The species also suffers locally from over-hunting (del Hoyo et al. 1994). The European population is reported to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extinct Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extinct Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Possibly Extinct Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea V Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extinct Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Karwendel
Austria Niedere Tauern
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Balota Maročna
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Malchamps
Czechia Eastern Krušné hory mountains
Czechia Jizerské hory mountains
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Novodomske raseliniste peatbog - Kovarska
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Suursoo-Leidissoo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Litokaira
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
France Bois des Ayes
France Bois du Chapitre
France Haut Giffre
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Les Bauges
France Montagne des Frêtes et plateau des Glières
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Plateau Ardennais
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Eastern Chiemgau Alps
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Deutscheinsiedel
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Military training area Munster-Süd
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Zschornoer Heide
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Italy Val d'Ossola
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Pravirsulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Netherlands Loonse and Drunense Duinen
Netherlands Oirschotse Heide
Netherlands Regte Heide
Netherlands Sallandse Heuvelrug
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Izerskie Mountains
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Karavanke
Slovenia Pohorje
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Ukraine Ratnivs'ke Game Reserve
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Galloway Forest Park
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Lyrurus tetrix. Downloaded from on 02/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/04/2020.