Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix


Taxonomic note
Lyrurus tetrix (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Tetrao.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 25,600,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8000000-14000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 1,220,000-2,040,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 2,450,000-4,080,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 8,166,666-13,600,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 8,000,000-14,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population has suffered major declines and range contractions over much of its range owing to afforestation of heathland, increased cultivation, and planting of coniferous monocultures. The species also suffers locally from over-hunting (del Hoyo et al. 1994). The European population is reported to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extinct Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extinct Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Possibly Extinct Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea V Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extinct Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Montenegro Durmitor
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Novaraistis State Ornithological Reserve
Lithuania Viesvile Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Liechtenstein Garselli-Zigerberg, Alpengebiet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Nehatu mire
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Laukasoo bog
Estonia Ohepalu
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Meenikunno bog
Estonia Meelva bog
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Daudzeva fishponds and Aklais bog
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Slovenia Julijci
Belgium Tailles
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Malchamps
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Bay of Kil
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Janów forests
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Netherlands Sallandse Heuvelrug
Netherlands Loonse and Drunense Duinen
Netherlands Regte Heide
Netherlands Oirschotse Heide
Netherlands Kampina & Oisterwijkse Vennen
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Budnyanski mire
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Ushomyrs'ke Game Reserve
France Plateau Ardennais
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Bois du Chapitre
France Bec de Crigne
France Bois des Ayes
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Montagne des Frêtes et plateau des Glières
France Les Bauges
France Haut Giffre
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Berwyn
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Glen Tanar
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom Ballochbuie
United Kingdom Coilacriech
United Kingdom Forest of Birse
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Galloway Forest Park
United Kingdom Moorfoot Hills
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Belluno Dolomites
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Grigne
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Val Grande
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Giulie Pre-Alps
Italy Dolomites
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Jeseniky mountains
Czechia Doupov hills
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Riečnica
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Chočské hills
Slovakia Levočské hills
Slovakia Spišská Magura
Norway Havmyran
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Freiwald
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Poland Gorce mountains
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Vesser valley Biosphere Reserve
Germany Assberg-Hasenleite
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Deutscheinsiedel
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Mangfall mountains and Rotwand area
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Rotes Moor
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Ukraine Ratnivs'ke Game Reserve
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Watershead of Kama and Porysh rivers
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Balota Maročna
Belarus Servač
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Karula
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Muraka
Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Sirtsi
Estonia Suursoo-Leidissoo
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Czechia Novodomske raseliniste peatbog - Kovarska
Czechia Eastern Krušné hory mountains
Czechia Jizerské hory mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Cena bog
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Latvia Dunika bog
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Pape
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Zvarde forest
Latvia Augstroze
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Stikli
Latvia Lielais and Pemmas bogs
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Stompaku bogs
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Mezole
Latvia Rakupe and Pace
Latvia Sturu and Zvardes bogs
France Préalpes de Grasse
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex
Kazakhstan Cherdoyak
Italy Tarvisio forest and Giulie pre-alps
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Lagorai mountains
Austria Karwendel
Ukraine Urochysche Mushevo
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy Monte Rosa (versante valdostano) ed Alta Val Sesia
Italy Mont Blanc (Italian side)
Slovenia Pohorje
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Jelovica plateau
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Cherkaski reserve
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Military training area Munster-Süd
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Unterlüß / Kiehnmoor
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Zschornoer Heide
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Eastern Chiemgau Alps
Germany Wetterstein mountain range
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Romania Rodnei Mountains
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Izerskie Mountains
Lithuania Pravirsulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Polesie
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Karavanke
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Koigi
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Luitemaa
Sweden Sjaunja
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Lyrurus tetrix. Downloaded from on 27/07/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/07/2021.