EN
Black-fronted Francolin Pternistis atrifrons



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Pternistis castaneicollis and P. atrifrons (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously placed in the genus Francolinus and lumped as F. castaneicollis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v) B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 456
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 medium estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: Gedeon et al. (2017) estimated the population size to be 1,100-2,100 mature individuals, which is placed here in the range 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. The species is potentially split into multiple sub-populations and it is likely that the largest sub-population contains fewer than 1,000 mature individuals (especially given the lower end of the potential population size estimate). However, there is insufficient evidence currently to conclude that the largest sub-population is ≤250 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Surveys by Töpfer et al. (2014) and Gedeon et al. (2017) have found the species to be currently scarce, and as such the species has most likely declined from when it was considered common (Macworth-Praed and Grant 1952, Urban and Brown 1971). Given that threats are ongoing, declines are therefore likely to continue. Thus, the species is assessed as undergoing a continuing decline, though there is insufficient evidence to estimate the exact rate.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Kenya N Presence Uncertain

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Altitude 1100 - 2225 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pternistis atrifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/03/2019.