Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,100,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000-849999 not applicable estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 8,000-21,000 pairs, which equates to 16,000-42,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms <5% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population is 320,000-840,000 mature individuals although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 300,000-849,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Possibly Extinct Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) I Possibly Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extinct Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Portugal R Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Spain N Extinct Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
USA I Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Karpas Peninsula
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Tuzla lake
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Turkey Agyatan Lake
Turkey Yumurtalik lagoons
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Georgia Iori Region
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Iraq Al Jadriyah and Umm Al Khanazeer island
Iraq Hawizeh
Iraq Anah and Rawa
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mehrouyeh Wildlife Refuge
Jordan Jordan Valley
Palestine Jericho
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Syria Euphrates valley
Syria Ras al-Ayn
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Armenia Meghri
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Turkmenistan Garadegish
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Paralimni Lake
Cyprus Oroklini Lake
Cyprus Famagusta Lakes
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Atsas-Agios Theodoros Area
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Diarizos Valley
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Cha Potami River
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula
Cyprus Saramas Valley

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Francolinus francolinus. Downloaded from on 09/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/12/2022.