Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,100,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000-849999 not applicable estimated 2012
Population trend stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 8,000-21,000 pairs, which equates to 16,000-42,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms <5% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population is 320,000-840,000 mature individuals although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 300,000-849,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bangladesh possibly extinct native yes
Bhutan extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Guam (to USA) possibly extinct introduced yes
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extinct native yes
Jordan extant native yes
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Nepal extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Portugal extant reintroduced yes
Saudi Arabia possibly extinct native yes
Spain extinct native yes
Syria extant native yes
Turkey extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
USA possibly extinct introduced yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Meghri
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Atsas-Agios Theodoros Area
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Cha Potami River
Cyprus Diarizos Valley
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Famagusta Lakes
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain
Cyprus Oroklini Lake
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River
Cyprus Paralimni Lake
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
Cyprus Saramas Valley
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mehrouyeh Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iraq Anah and Rawa
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Palestine Jericho
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Syria Euphrates valley
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Syria Ras al-Ayn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - non-trivial recent
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Francolinus francolinus. Downloaded from on 01/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/06/2023.