Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. 1998. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 13-19. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
|1994||Lower Risk/Least Concern|
|1988||Lower Risk/Least Concern|
|Migratory status||full migrant||Forest dependency||Does not normally occur in forest|
|Land mass type||Average mass||-|
|Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2)||162,000,000||medium|
|Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2)||29||medium|
|Number of locations||12||-|
|Estimate||Data quality||Derivation||Year of estimate|
|No. of mature individuals||good||estimated||2006|
|Decline (3 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (5 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation future)||20-29||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future)||-||-||-|
|Number of subpopulations||4||-||-||-|
|Generation length (yrs)||18.8||-||-||-|
The breeding season population is estimated to 69,404 pairs, equivalent to 138,808 breeding individuals (ACAP 2012).
Trend justification: Monitoring data from three colonies in Hawaii, representing over 75% of the world's population, suggest that numbers may have decreased by 9.6% between 1992 and 2001 (Gilman and Freifeld 2003, USFWS data per E. Flint 2003). However, linear regression analysis of log-transformed counts at the same colonies suggests that the species’ population has remained stable since at least 1957 and has increased overall since 1923, and matrix modelling suggests that its population is currently stable or increasing slightly (Arata et al. 2009). In addition, trends over a three generation period (56 years) commencing in 1956 were estimated at +26% using TRIM (ACAP unpubl. data).
In 2003, estimated rates of incidental mortality in longline fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean (based on a moderate bycatch scenario of 8,000 birds being killed per year) resulted in a projected future decline of more than 60% over the next three generations (56 years), if bycatch mortality was not reduced through mitigation measures (Lewison and Crowder 2003). However, the demographic parameters for Lewison and Crowder’s (2003) model, namely survival probability, growth probability and fecundity, were based on data from the 1960s and 1970s, for which it was incorrectly assumed that no bycatch took place (Arata et al. 2009). This implies that the basic parameters for a stable population with no additional mortality were actually estimated from a population already experiencing significant bycatch, and were thus underestimated. This appears to have led to an overestimation of the declines that would result from the annual bycatch scenarios tested by Lewison and Crowder (2003), by counting this source of mortality both within the demographic parameter estimates and within the simulation scenario, effectively doubling the impact of fisheries (Arata et al. 2009). Nevertheless, likely bycatch levels are still predicted to cause a decline in the population, albeit not as rapid as previously projected (Arata et al. 2009). Other studies on this species have confirmed the impact of fisheries bycatch on survival (Verán et al. 2007) and the annual population growth rate (Niel and Lebreton 2005). Annual bycatch was estimated at 5,228 birds in 2005, which, if doubled to account for underestimation, approaches the maximum Potential Biological Removal (PBR) level of 11,980 birds, which is calculated to be the maximum level of off-take possible without causing a decline (Arata et al. 2009). The maximum PBR level for this species has also been estimated at 8,850 birds per year (Niel and Lebreton 2005) and 10,000 birds per year (Cousins and Cooper 2000).
It still remains necessary to robustly model the future impact of bycatch on this species. In the meantime, given the risk of bycatch approaching PBR, and potential risk to nesting habitat from sea-level rise modelled for Midway Atoll, site of the world’s largest Black-footed Albatross colony (Storlazzi et al. 2013, Reynolds et al. 2015), it seems appropriate to precautionarily project future declines approaching 630% over the next 56 years (three generations).
|Guam (to USA)||N||Extant||Yes|
|Micronesia, Federated States of||N||Extant||Yes|
|Northern Mariana Islands (to USA)||U||Extant|
|United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA)||N||Extant||Yes||Yes|
|High Seas||Pacific, Eastern Central 1 - Marine|
|High Seas||Pacific, Eastern Central 2 - Marine|
|USA||Gulf of Alaska Shelf Edge 148W59N|
|USA||La Perouse Bank|
|USA||Mendocino Coast Pelagic, CA|
|USA||Northwestern Hawaiian Islands|
|USA||Olympic Continental Shelf|
|USA||San Mateo Coast, CA|
|Habitat (level 1)||Habitat (level 2)||Importance||Occurrence|
|Marine Intertidal||Rocky Shoreline||major||breeding|
|Marine Intertidal||Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc||major||breeding|
|Marine Intertidal||Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches||major||breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Seagrass (Submerged)||suitable||breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Seagrass (Submerged)||suitable||non-breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel||suitable||breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel||suitable||non-breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs||suitable||breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs||suitable||non-breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Sandy||suitable||breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Sandy||suitable||non-breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Sandy-Mud||suitable||breeding|
|Marine Neritic||Subtidal Sandy-Mud||suitable||non-breeding|
|Marine Oceanic||Abyssopelagic (4000-6000m)||major||non-breeding|
|Marine Oceanic||Bathypelagic (1000-4000m)||major||non-breeding|
|Marine Oceanic||Epipelagic (0-200m)||major||breeding|
|Marine Oceanic||Epipelagic (0-200m)||major||non-breeding|
|Marine Oceanic||Mesopelagic (200-1000m)||major||breeding|
|Marine Oceanic||Mesopelagic (200-1000m)||major||non-breeding|
|Altitude||0 - 50 m||Occasional altitudinal limits|
|Threat (level 1)||Threat (level 2)||Impact and Stresses|
|Biological resource use||Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Majority (50-90%)||Slow, Significant Declines||Medium Impact: 6|
|Biological resource use||Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target)||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Past, Unlikely to Return||Majority (50-90%)||Rapid Declines||Past Impact|
|Biological resource use||Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Past, Unlikely to Return||Minority (<50%)||Rapid Declines||Past Impact|
|Climate change & severe weather||Habitat shifting & alteration||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Future||Minority (<50%)||Slow, Significant Declines||Low Impact: 3|
|Climate change & severe weather||Storms & flooding||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Minority (<50%)||Causing/Could cause fluctuations||Low Impact: 5|
|Past, Likely to Return||Minority (<50%)||Negligible declines||Past Impact|
|Pollution||Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Pollution||Garbage & solid waste||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Purpose||Primary form used||Life stage used||Source||Scale||Level||Timing|
|Food - human||-||-||Non-trivial||Recent|
|Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.||-||-||International||Non-trivial||Recent|
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Phoebastria nigripes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/02/2020.